Use exemplification paragraphs to provide instances that clarify your topic statement. In the following paragraph, the topic sentence is supported in examples that illustrate, support, and clarify the main point.
Vitamins and minerals can be added to enrich (replace nutrients lost in processing) or fortify (add nutrients not normally present) foods to improve their nutritional quality. Breads and cereals are usually enriched with some B vitamins and iron. Common examples of fortification include the addition of vitamin D to milk, vitamin A to margarine, vitamin C to fruit drinks, calcium to orange juice, and iodide to table salt.
--P. Insel and W. Roth, Core Concepts in Health
Use narration to establish a series of events that tells the reader what happened. Narration follows a chronological pattern of development. It is a convincing mode of paragraph development to the extent that it tells a coherent story. This pattern or time line is usually very easy to understand. In the following narrative, the first narrative paragraph is followed by two descriptive paragraphs. Note the use of transitional words such as thereafter, first, next, and after.
Containment and Treatment of the Love Canal Landfill Leachate Temporary Treatment Program
The carbon feasibility studies were completed in October, 1978. Immediately thereafter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "Blue Magoo" was dispatched to the site to provide on-site emergency treatment. First, wastewater generated during construction was collected, pH adjusted, clarified, sand filtered, and carbon treated. Next, treated effluent was analyzed and was found to confirm Calgon's study findings. After this process, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation granted a discharge permit on October 27, 1978.
On October 29, 1978, the EPA Emergency Treatment System was replaced by a larger system provided by Newco Chemical Waste Systems, Inc. and Calgon Corp.
The two-stage adsorption system, providing ongoing treatment at the Love Canal site, is as kid-mounted system designed for rapid installation. The absorbers are pressure vessels complete with all process and carbon transfer piping, valving, and instrumentation. Each absorber holds a full truckload of 9,072 kg (20,000 lbs.) of granular carbon and can hydraulically process up to 662l/min (175 gal) of wastewater. When a carbon bed is spent, the spent carbon is pneumatically and hydraulically transferred to.
--W. McDougall and R. A. Fusco, "Containment and Treatment of the Love Canal LandfillLeachate," Journal of the Water Pollution and Control Federation
Use process in paragraphs to develop sequences that describe how an action is carried out or how something works. The following paragraph shows a typical sequential treatment of a general physical phenomenon. Note the concentration of process verbs such as to find, samples, sums, and provides.
Ideally, an image should contain a region of high-intensity pixels that form the target, and a low-intensity background. To find the target region, the algorithm first samples the images in overlapping windows and sums the pixel intensities contained in each window. The window with the highest sum is assumed to contain the target, and the average of the remaining window sis assumed to be indicative of the background level. Thus, subtracting the average of the window sums from the highest window sum provides a measure of the target strength over the background noise level. If an image does not contain a target, then the different between the highest sum and the average sum will be very small. The difference will also be small for images containing faint targets and high levels of background noise.
--M. Menon, E. Boudreau, and P. J. Kolodzy, "An Automatic Ship Classification System forISAR Imagery," Lincoln Laboratory Journal...