Report No. 1202 / July 9, 2012
This research was supported by a grant (N00014-09-1-0872) from the Office of Naval Research The CSC is a research unit of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and a strategic initiative of the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University. It promotes advanced research, teaching, and public discussions of the role of communication in combating terrorism, promoting national security, and improving public diplomacy. For additional information visit our website at http://csc.asu.edu
Islamist extremists make heavy use of the Qur’an (Islam’s most sacred text) in their strategic communication. This study analyzed the most frequently cited or quoted verses in the Center for Strategic Communication’s database of over 2,000 extremist texts. The texts date from the years 1998 to 2011, and originate primarily from the Middle East and North Africa. Taking this data as a starting point, we provide a qualitative analysis of the historical contexts and core narrative components of the cited passages. The results confirm certain common assumptions about extremist readings of the Qur’an. There is a disproportionate use of surahs (chapters) from the later Medinan over the earlier Meccan period – only one of the top ten most frequently cited surahs of the Qur’an is Meccan. The Medinan surahs also fall within a certain historical window representing the onset and completion of military conflict between the earliest Muslims and the “pagan” clans of Mecca and their allies. Other findings in the report raise questions about the veracity of claims often made by analysts. The most surprising is the near absence of the well-known “Verse of the Sword” (9:5) from the extremist texts. Widely regarded as the most militant or violent passage of the Qur’an, it is treated as a divine call for offensive warfare on a global scale. It is also regarded as a verse which supersedes over one hundred other verses of the Qur’an that counsel patience, tolerance, and forgiveness. We conclude that verses extremists cite from the Qur’an do not suggest an aggressive offensive foe seeking domination and conquest of unbelievers, as is commonly assumed. Instead they deal with themes of victimization, dishonor, and retribution. This shows close integration with the rhetorical vision of Islamist extremists. Based on this analysis we recommend that the West abandon claims that Islamist extremists seek world domination, focus on counteracting or addressing claims of victimage, emphasize alternative means of deliverance, and work to undermine the “champion” image sought by extremists.
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How Islamist Extremists Quote the Qur’an
This report quantitatively analyzes how Islamist extremists use the Qur’an in their messaging. To do so, we compiled data from the Islamist extremist text database created by the Center for Strategic Communication (CSC) at Arizona State University, which contains over 2,000 texts. The full range of texts date from 1998 to 2011, but the majority of them date from 2007 to 2011. The database includes the statements and proclamations of wellknown Islamist extremist groups, such as al-Qaeda or al-Shabaab, as well as anonymous posters on online extremist message forums.1 All texts in the database have gone through a reliable coding process. Each paragraph in each text was categorized by CSC analysts. One coding category is “verse,” referring to any verse from a religious text. Another category that often contains verses is “exposition.” Qur’anic verses were collected from this coded data in the CSC database and catalogued to identify how Islamist extremists utilize the Qur’an. We cataloged 1,511 verse invocations. If a specific verse was used in multiple texts, the number of times it was used (including multiple times in a...