Quiz 1

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Question 1 of 25 4.0/ 4.0 Points
Which one of the following is not a system?

A. a leaf

B. a tree

C. a mountain range

D. Earth
E. All of these are examples of systems

Answer Key: E
Feedback: See "The system concept" in Chapter 1. All of the above examples are described as systems.

“A system may be large or small, simple or complex (Figure 1.6). It could be the contents of the beaker in a laboratory experiment or the contents of an ocean. A leaf is a system, but it is also part of a larger system (a tree), which is part of a still larger system (a forest).

“This figure shows a variety of systems. The entire diagram – mountains, river, lake – is one kind of system known as a watershed. The individual pieces enclosed by boxes, such as the river, are also systems. Even a small volume of water or lake sediment (foreground boxes) can be considered a system.” Figure 1.6, p. 9

“The Earth itself is a very close approximation to a closed system.” Question 2 of 25 4.0/ 4.0 Points
In the illustration below, which of the three models depicts an "open system?

A. Model A

B. Model B
C. Model C

D. Models A and B

E. None of the above

Answer Key: C
Feedback: “A closed system is one that does not allow matter to pass through its boundaries (but may allow energy). An open system allows both matter and energy to pass through its boundaries.” Question 3 of 25 4.0/ 4.0 Points

The figure below depicts the evolution of the solar system. During which stage would the process of nuclear fusion begin?

A. Stage 1

B. Stage 2
C. Stage 3

D. Stage 4

E. Choices 3 and 4

Answer Key: C
Feedback: “3. Contraction raises temperature; process of nuclear fusion begins in central bulge – Sun begins to shine. Outer disk cools – now contains wide swath of rock debris. Larger chunks of debris begin to attract smaller chunks by gravity, thereby growing larger (accretion).” Question 4 of 25 4.0/ 4.0 Points

The cloud of gas and dust from which the moons and planets of our solar system eventually formed is called a _____. Correct
A. nebula.

B. condensation cloud.

C. nuclear cloud.

D. accretionary nebula.

Answer Key: A
Feedback: “The nebular hypothesis, originally formulated by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant in 1755 and now widely accepted as the best description of planetary formulation, hypothesizes that the solar system coalesced out of a swirly cloud of interstellar dust and gas called a nebula.”

“Cloud of matter (nebula) begins to contract gravitationally. Process may have been initiated or accelerated by shock waves from supernova explosion (not shown).” Question 5 of 25 4.0/ 4.0 Points

Our Sun was born ______ years ago.

A. 456 million

B. 4.56 million
C. 4.56 billion

D. 45.6 billion

E. None of the above

Answer Key: C
Feedback: Explained in "The Origin of the Solar System".
Question 6 of 25 4.0/ 4.0 Points
Differentiation of the inner planets probably means that each of the rocky planetary bodies _____.

A. started out with a cold exterior that was heated by the sun.

B. lost temperature early in its history.

C. went through a period with thick atmospheres.
D. started out hot enough to melt, either partially or completely.

E. Choices 1 and 2

Answer Key: D
Feedback: Why is the accretion history of planets important to geologists? Because of the heat generated by collisions, every rocky planet probably started out hot enough to melt either partially or completely. During the period of partial melting, terrestrial planets separated into layers of differing chemical composition, a process called differentiation. Question 7 of 25 4.0/ 4.0 Points

Which of the inner planets has an atmosphere too thin to retain much heat and...
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