Nationalism within Austria-Hungary: a struggle for self-determination. But Austria-Hungary was brave to meet the challenge and to struggle for preservation of the Empire.
Result: internally, proposal of extending the dual rule to a triple or a quadruple one; externally, nationalistic rivalries started between Austria and Serbia, between Austria and Russia. Her solution was to annex neighbouring states having fellow peoples within the Empire. It contributed to the outbreak of Austro-Serbian War.
But the extension of these rivalries was caused by the alliance system and militarism.
If nationalism within Austria-Hungary contributed, so did nationalism of other powers (Pan-Slavism, Greater Serbia Movement, French Revanchism, Pan-Germanism, etc.)
The Great War was caused by a complexity of conflicts.
To what extent was nationalism a disruptive force in Europe during the period 1900-1914?
1. Nationalism aimed at national independence in initial stage
2. It looked to national expansion and domination
National conflicts in the period of 1900-1914
1. Nationalism in the Balkans to struggle to remain independent.
- they wanted to dismember the Ottoman Empire and drive the Turks from Europe. To save the Empire, the Young Turks seized control and wanted to re-establish its formal vigor.
2. Russian nationalism aimed at having an outlet to the Mediterranean by helping the Balkans people with a Pan-Slav movement.
3. Pan-Slav movement was not only a threat to the Turks but also a threat to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austrian nationalism showed its attempts to dominate Balkans.
4. German nationalism under Kaiser William II meant ruthless expansion. Pan-Germanism came to a clash with Pan-Slavism of in the Balkans.
5. German aggressive nationalism also showed in her naval conflicts with Britain and imperial rivalries with Britain and France.
6. French nationalism aimed at revenge and making alliance to break her isolation by Bismarck's diplomatic alignments.
Events resulted from conflicting nationalism
1. Formation of rival camps
2. Moroccan Crises, 1905, 1911
3. Bosnian crisis, 1908
4. Berlin-Baghdad Railway crisis
5. Two Balkan Wars, 1912-13.
6. Sarajevo Incident, 1914.
These Rivalries led to the outbreak of a Great War. In fact no country wanted war. Failure to solve the problems by diplomacy stemmed not only from nationalism.
There was another disruptive force
- militarism in Germany alarmed other Powers leading to armament race.
- British naval construction intensified armament race.
- France joined armament race.
- Both Hague Conference and Second International failed to champion peace.
- Militarism rivalry split Europe into Triple Alliance and Triple Entente.
- Military plans and laid in every country.
Results : Military consideration took precedent over political and diplomatic consideration.
To what extent did the Balkans settlement of 1913 sow the seeds of World War One?
The Balkans - focus of Austro-Serbian rivalries and places where Pan-Germanism Vs Pan-Slavism
The 2 Balkan Wars resulted in the Balkan settlements - Ambassadorial Conference (1913) in London and Treaty of Bucharest, 1913.
Expectation of various powers in the Settlement
Serbia - access to the Adriatic and divide Macedonia
Russia - concerned for her Balkan Allies and for the Straits
Austria-Hungary - objected to any kind of increased power for Serbia and backed Bulgaria
Italy and Greece - wished to annex territories (Albania and Macedonia) respectively
Cession of all Turkish territories west of the Enos-Midia line and all the Aegean Islands.
Albania - independent
Internal rifts between Balkan League - quarrel over...