quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition andentanglement, to perform operations on data.[1] Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses qubits (quantum bits), which can be in superpositionsof states. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with non-deterministic and probabilistic computers; one example is the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. The field of quantum computing was first introduced by Yuri Manin in 1980[2] and Richard Feynman in 1982.[3][4] A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum space–time in 1969.[5] As of 2014 quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits.[6]Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.[7] Large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much quicker than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, which run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm.[8] Given sufficient computational resources, however, a classical computer could be made to simulate any quantum algorithm; quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis.[9]A quantum computer is a computation device that makes direct use ofquantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition andentanglement, to perform operations on data.[1] Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses qubits (quantum bits), which can be in superpositionsof states. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with non-deterministic and probabilistic computers; one example is the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. The field of quantum computing was first introduced by Yuri Manin in 1980[2] and Richard Feynman in 1982.[3][4] A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum space–time in 1969.[5]As of 2014 quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits.[6]Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.[7]Large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much quicker than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, which run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm.[8] Given sufficient computational resources, however, a classical computer could be made to simulate any quantum algorithm; quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis.[9] A classical computer has a memory made up of bits, where each bit represents either a one or a zero. A quantum...

...By the strange laws of quantum mechanics, Folger, a senior editor at Discover, notes, an electron, proton, or other subatomic particle is "in more than one place at a time," because individual particles behave like waves, these different places are different states that an atom can exist in simultaneously. Ten years ago, Folger writes, David Deutsch, a physicist at Oxford University, argued that it may be possible to build an extremely
powerful computer based on this peculiar reality. In 1994, Peter Shor, a mathematician at AT&T Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, proved that, in theory at least, a full-blown quantumcomputer could factor even the largest numbers in seconds--an accomplishment impossible for even the fastest conventional computer.
An outbreak of theories and discussions of the possibility
of buildig a quantumcomputer now permeates itself thoughtout the quantum fields of technology and research. It's roots can be traced back to 1981, when Richard Feynman noted that physicists always seem to run into computational problems when they try to simulate a system in which quantum mechanics would take place. The caluclations involving the behavior of atoms, electrons, or photons, require an immense amount of time on today's computers. In 1985 in Oxford England the first description of how a quantum...

...
Jeff Knight
GS1140 Problem Solving Theory
4/9/15
Mr. Dozler
Module Three: Generating Solutions Using Futuring:
As we progress in our technological world where everyone is interested in the next iPhone or Samsung Galaxy, quantumcomputers are still moving forward. It seems that only computer "nerds" seem to care and understand this wonder. What if all of the theories, concepts, and everything else that makes up what quantumcomputers are and will be, is presented in a way that everyone can understand. The way that quantumcomputers can be divided is into three main areas: quantum physics, quantum bits or (qubits), and their future goals.
To better understand how quantumcomputers work, you need to start with what clearly defines a quantumcomputer: A quantumcomputer is a computer design which uses the principles of quantum physics to increase the computational power beyond what is attainable by a traditional computer. Quantumcomputers use two fundamental principles of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement. Quantum superposition is where the state of a physical system exists in all possible states at the same time. Then the physical system is only giving...

...A quantum leap for lighting
Consumer electronics: Tiny semiconductor crystals, called quantum
dots, enable new forms of energy-efficient lighting
HOW many inventions does it take to change a light bulb? More than
you might think. Around the world, many people are switching from
traditional incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent (CFL) bulbs,
which require less energy to produce a given amount of light, and
therefore save money and reduce carbon emissions. But CFLs
themselves may soon be overhauled by light emitting diodes (LEDs),
which are even more energy efficient and have the further advantage
that they come on instantly at full brightness, unlike CFLs, which can
take a while to warm up. Advocates of LEDs note that the technology is
versatile enough to work in almost any situation, from stadium lighting
right down to the tiny light on your phone that flashes to indicate a new
message.
But not even LEDs, it seems, are the end of the story. Yet another
lighting technology is on the horizon that offers further advantages:
even greater power efficiency and softer, warmer light, the colour of
which can be precisely controlled. Even though it will be put to rather
mundane uses, the technology in question has an exotic name:
quantum-dot
lighting.
Quantum dots are tiny crystals of semiconducting material just a few
tens of atoms, or a few nanometres (billionths of a metre), across. They
are...

...algorithmic and physical side, the study of quantum computing which is a new comprehensive and cross science of quantum mechanics and computer science has become a more sought-after and highly charged issue in recent years. This essay aims to give a brief overall introduction of quantum computing that is simple but still conveys the essential ideas and principles to general engineers who have some basic knowledge of linear algebra. In this essay, five primary parts of quantum computing are covered in order. First of all, three reasons for developing quantum computing, including its marvellous performance on some certain computational tasks, high efficiency on simulating other quantum systems and some physical limits to classical computing, will be illustrated in detail. After that, three basic concepts namely quantum bit, quantum gate and quantum computing process will be explained convincingly by comparing their classical counterparts. The different parts between them such as ‘superposition’ and ‘probabilistic’ will be focused on, because they are where the unique properties of quantum computing come from. In the third part, Shor’s factorizing algorithm will be set as an example to demonstrate its prominent computational power. In the final part, its rapid development and tremendous potentials both in physical research...

...Paper on Quantum Cryptography
1.Introduction
"Quantum cryptography is the only approach to privacy ever proposed that allows two parties to communicate with provably perfect secrecy under the nose of an eavesdropper endowed with unlimited computational power and whose technology is limited by nothing but the fundamental laws of nature."
The word quantum refers to the most fundamental behaviour of the smallest particles of matter and energy: quantum theory explains everything that exists and nothing can be in violation of it. Cryptology, the mathematical science of secret communications, has a long and distinguished history of military and diplomatic uses dating back to the ancient Greeks. Quantum cryptography also known as Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) uses our current knowledge of physics to develop a cryptosystem that is not able to be defeated - that is, one that is completely secure against being compromised without knowledge of the sender or the receiver of the messages. Today, the ability to ensure the secrecy of military or diplomatic communications is as vital as ever, but cryptography is also becoming more and more important in everyday life. With the growth of computer networks for business transactions and communication of confidential information there is an ever increasing need for encryption to ensure that this information...

...one of the following atoms or ions would the 2s and 2p orbitals have the same energy? a) O2– b) H c) He d) Li+ e) F6+
5. Which of the following electron excitations of the hydrogen atom requires light of the shortest wavelength? a) b) c) d) e) n = 2 to n = 3 n = 3 to n = 4 n = 4 to n = 20 n = 5 to n = 100 n = 4 to n = 1000
6. Which one of the following electron configurations is not valid? a) 1s2 2s2 2p2 b) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 c) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 d) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 e) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p8
7. What is the specific activity (in Bq g–1) of the nuclide 1.6 seconds? a) 2.9 1021 b) 3.3 1021 c) 3.6 1021
90 35
Br , whose half-life is
d) 1.0 1021
e) 2.6 1023
8. Which one of the following sets of quantum numbers is valid? n a) b) c) d) e) 3 1 3 1 5 l 1 1 3 1 4 ml (or m) 0 0 –2 1 3 ms (or s) 0 –½ +½ 0 +½
9. Which of the following lobe depictions of atomic orbitals is the best representation of a 1s orbital? The white and grey shading represent different phases of the wavefunction.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
10. How many nodes does a 5s atomic orbital have? a) b) c) d) e) 0 planar nodes and 0 spherical nodes 3 planar nodes and 2 spherical nodes 1 planar node and 1 spherical node 0 planar nodes and 4 spherical nodes 2 planar nodes and 3 spherical nodes 1C, 2C, 3E, 4B, 5A, 6E, 7A, 8E, 9D, 10D
Correct answers:
...

...What are we made of???
Throughout the years the Quantum Mechanic model has evolved many times. This evolution has taken place after every major discovery in Quantum Mechanics. The current Quantum mechanic model is by far the most accurate example of an atom and how it works. Currently the model depicts a proton (or more than one depending on the atom) and neutron in the nucleus and a an electron rotating around the nucleus in an energy level, or an estimated path of the electron.
The first person to purpose the existence of atoms was Democritus. Democritus’ had the right idea however the details of his original theory were not quite right. Democritus believed there was a select few elements and the ratio between these elements made up matter. It was free thinking individuals like this that led to the discovery of several theories that aloud atoms to be tested.
François Bacon was one of those individuals. He saw a need for organization in the scientific community. His answer to this was the scientific method. The scientific method was a list of steps that helped organize experiments.
Antoine Lavoisier was a French nobleman that had made a hobby of chemistry. However because of this bored tax collector with a passion we were able to accurately test countless theories. Lavoisier created the “Law of Conservation of Matter,” which stated that no matter could be created or destroyed. This Law caused a flurry of questions, were did...

...difference between classical and quantum physics and why classical physics does not work on quantum level particles?” First of all what is classical and quantum physics, Classical physics is the physics of the world we see around us; classical physics is the physics of the objects that we can feel or see. Quantum physics starts when every thing gets as small as (the size), quantum physics tells use about the behaviors and interaction of subatomic particles and more about quantum physics will be uncovered in this essay.
I have always been fascinated by quantum physics, how it is so different to the world we see and that there is so little we can relate between each other, The laws of physics changes dramatically when you change to quantum states. It is like it is another world, a different dimension. I will be looking at the differences and similarities of classical and quantum energies of different objects. This will be done by looking at the total energy of objects from a bowling ball to a electron, to calculate the total energy of these objects I will be using the classical physics formula for total energy of an object (E=12mv2+mgh) and Schrödinger’s equation HΨ=EΨ.
I believe that the question that I will be researching will give me a good introduction to quantum physics and by using Schrödinger’s equation will also give me a...