quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition andentanglement, to perform operations on data.[1] Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses qubits (quantum bits), which can be in superpositionsof states. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with non-deterministic and probabilistic computers; one example is the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. The field of quantum computing was first introduced by Yuri Manin in 1980[2] and Richard Feynman in 1982.[3][4] A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum space–time in 1969.[5] As of 2014 quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits.[6]Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.[7] Large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much quicker than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, which run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm.[8] Given sufficient computational resources, however, a classical computer could be made to simulate any quantum algorithm; quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis.[9]A quantum computer is a computation device that makes direct use ofquantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition andentanglement, to perform operations on data.[1] Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses qubits (quantum bits), which can be in superpositionsof states. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with non-deterministic and probabilistic computers; one example is the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. The field of quantum computing was first introduced by Yuri Manin in 1980[2] and Richard Feynman in 1982.[3][4] A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum space–time in 1969.[5]As of 2014 quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits.[6]Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.[7]Large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much quicker than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, which run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm.[8] Given sufficient computational resources, however, a classical computer could be made to simulate any quantum algorithm; quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis.[9] A classical computer has a memory made up of bits, where each bit represents either a one or a zero. A quantum...

...QUANTUMCOMPUTERS
INTRODUCTION
A quantumcomputer is a computation device that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantumcomputers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits),...

...Causing Collapse
Weizmann Institute researchers suggest one can affect an atom’s spin by adjusting the way it is measured
One of the most basic laws of quantum mechanics is that a system can be in more than one state – it can exist in multiple realities – at once. This phenomenon, known as the superposition principle, exists only so long as the system is not observed or measured in any way. As soon as such a system is measured, its superposition collapses into a single...

... ii
Summary iii
What is a quantumcomputer? 1
Elements of a quantumcomputer 2
Implementation of a quantumcomputer 4
D-Wave Two 5
Conclusion 6
TABLE OF BOXES
Box 1. Superposition 2
Box 2. Entanglement 2
Box 3. Quantum parallelism 3
SUMMARY
A...

...Programming Your QuantumComputer
The hardware doesn’t yet exist, but languages for quantum coding are ready to go.
Brian Hayes
The year is 2024, and I have just brought home my first quantumcomputer. When I plug it in and switch it on, the machine comes to life with a soft, breathy whisper from the miniature cryogenic unit. A status screen tells me I have at my disposal 1,024 qubits, or quantum bits,...

...
QuantumComputer
David Newell
COM/172
August 13, 2014
Dr. Laura Wilson
QuantumComputer
As we progress in our technological world where everyone is interested in the next iPhone or Samsung Galaxy, quantumcomputers are still moving forward. It seems that only the smartest "nerds" seem to care and understand this wonder. What if all of the theories, concepts, and everything else...

...By the strange laws of quantum mechanics, Folger, a senior editor at Discover, notes, an electron, proton, or other subatomic particle is "in more than one place at a time," because individual particles behave like waves, these different places are different states that an atom can exist in simultaneously. Ten years ago, Folger writes, David Deutsch, a physicist at Oxford University, argued that it may be possible to build an extremely
powerful computer based on...

...Physics 430 (Quantum Mechanics I)
Course Information, Spring 2013
Instructor: Jeﬀ Greensite
Contact Info: Thornton 304, 338-1600, greensit@stars.sfsu.edu
Oﬃce Hours: TBA
Content
This is the ﬁrst semester of a two-semester course on quantum mechanics. It will cover:
1. A review (or, for some, an introduction) to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics.
2. The historical background: Black-body radiation, the photoelectric eﬀect, the Compton eﬀection, electron...

...A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and...

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