Quantitative Research in Natural Sciences

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Quantitative research is very common in natural sciences. Quantitative research is used to verify or support a hypothesis that already exists. Being without the structure provided by a hypothesis in quantitative research between variables tested, may create feeling of insecurity. This is understandable since quantitative research on human behaviour has a more clearly defined research agenda. Research is conducted through a cycle of phases. The methods applied to carry out quantative research are data analysis, which is collected through statistics. The nature of this type of perspective is known as positivism because it strives to tell the world it can be understood in one context. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach, making predictions, and testing hypothesis that have already been carried out. (Coolican, H. 1999) Researchers of quantitative research work with numerical data by analysing numbers. Characteristics have to be put in place in order for results to be accurate and reliable. Prior to conducting a research, researchers have to state both hypotheses. The next task carried out prior to the research is to implement the procedure they are going to use. Researchers have to provide statistical meaningful data and in order to do this they have to use large enough samples of people. A quantifiable sample of 200 people is an absolute minimum in order to carry out a reliable statistical analysis. The accuracy of the research is important therefore correct procedures are employed to collect data analysis. In quantitative research due to the nature, certain types of methods are used to conduct research. Quantitative research is done through questioning and observing. Researchers can manipulate certain parts of the experiment when measuring the results. The methods are of systematic approach; the four main types of research used in quantitative research are descriptive or survey research, correlational research, casual comparative research and experimental research. (Bryman, A. 2004) Correlational research attempts to determine the relationships between two or more variables, experimental research attempts to look for an cause and effect between two or more variables. Correlational and group difference studies look at existing data this is a non-experimental study. The cause an effect here assess the relationship from one study that exists with another study which is the same. Whilst in casual comparative research the researcher has no control over the casual factor or independent variable because it is studied after the fact, this effect is also known as the dependent variable (D.V). Experimental research and casual comparative research looks at cause and effect relationship between two or more variables the difference between the two researches is that casual comparative research have no control whereas experimental research the researcher has control over the independent variable (I.V). (Bryman, A. 2004)

A longitudinal survey was conducted looking at behavioural patterns of sport fandom’s. The usefulness of this research was to analyse the behaviour of human explained by social facts. Longitudinal studies can be useful because they study the same group of participants over a certain aspect as time passes. The survey examined showing the behavioural component of sport fandom attending games. The data was collected in consecutive seasons, the methodology of study was to be reliable and in order to do this they collected data between clubs. The advantage of this survey showed the composition of the crowd, and their overt behaviour. The usefulness of using quantative methodology was to measure overt behaviour, and the different aspects in measuring the composition of the sports crowd. This study can be replicated again to compare the quantitative methodology. In this research the reliability and validity is determined more than a qualitative technique. Even though the survey showed the composition of the crowd...
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