Decision Science Management:
Please show all your work with the problems in steps but NOT just answers.

22. Reiser Sports Products wants to determine the number of All-Pro (A) and College (C) footballs to produce in order to maximize profit over the next four-week planning horizon. Constraints affecting the production quantities are the production capacities in three departments: cutting and dyeing; sewing; and inspection and packaging. For the four-week planning period, 340 hours of cutting and dyeing time, 420 hours of sewing time, and 200 hours of inspection and packaging time are available. All-Pro footballs provide of $5 per unit and College footballs provide a profit of $4 per unit. The linear programming model with production times expressed in minutes is as follows:

Max 5A + 4C
s.t.

12A + 6C 20,400 Cutting and dyeing
9A + 15C 25,200 Sewing
6A + 6C 12,000 Inspection and packaging
A, C 0

A portion of the graphical solution to the Reiser problem is shown in Figure 2.23 a. Shade the feasible region for this problem.

b. Determine the coordinates of each extreme point and the corresponding profit. Which extreme point generates the highest profit?

c. Draw the profit line corresponding to a profit of $4000. Move the profit line as far from the origin as you can in order to determine which extreme point will provide the optimal solution. Compare your answer with the approach you used in part (b).

d. Which constraints are binding? Explain.

e. Suppose that the values of the objective function coefficients are $4 for each All-Pro model produced and $5 for each College model. Use the graphical solution procedure to determine the new optimal solution and the corresponding value of profit.

...Kent Jackson
11AM-12:20PM
GB 202
Quantitative techniques are mathematical and reproducible. Regression analysis is an example of one such technique. Statistical analysis is also an example of a quantitative technique. Quantitative techniques are applied for business analysis to optimize decision making IE profit maximization and cost minimization. It covers linear programming models and other special algorithms, inventory and production models.
Albert Humphrey, a management consultant who specialized in organizational management, devised the SWOT analysis technique at Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s. Today, not only large corporations but also nonprofit and government agencies employ SWOT analysis. An enhanced method, known as the Six Forces Model, further helps to quantify competition, buyers and suppliers.
Identify strengths and weaknesses to assess whether the desired end state is possible. If it is not, revise your objective to reflect an attainable goal. Use SWOT analysis in strategic planning, crisis management and feasibility studies. Apply SWOT analysis techniques in academic environments for developmental studies. Use SWOT analysis to figure out how to exploit each strong point and minimize each disadvantage.
SWOT analysis techniques facilitate decision making by classifying and categorizing factors that influence the outcome of activities....

...Quantitative Research MethodsQuantitative means quantity which implies that there is something that can be counted. Quantitative research has been defined in many ways. It is the kind of research that involves the tallying, manipulation or systematic aggregation of quantities of data (Henning, 1986)
John W. Creswell defined quantitative research as an inquiry into a social or human problem based on testing a theory composed a theory composed of variables, measured with numbers, and analysed with statistical procedures in order to determine whether the predictive generalisations of the theory holds true. (Creswell, 2003)
On the other hand, another author defined quantitative research as the collection of numerical data in order to explain, predict and/or control phenomena of interest. Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically based methods (Aliaga & Gunderson, 2000)
Quantitative research can also be said to be a research based on traditional scientific methods, which generates numerical data and usually seeks to establish causal relationships (or association) between two or more variables, using statistical methods to test the strength and significance of the relationships (A dictionary of Nursing, 2008)
Simply put, quantitative...

...Quantitative Techniques/Operations Research
Successful managers use quantitative techniques in decision making when:
1. The problem is complex.
2. The problem involves many variables.
3. There are data which describe the decision environment.
4. There are data which describe the value or utility of the different possible alternatives.
5. The goals of the decision maker or the organization can be described inquantitative terms.
6. Workable models are available for these situations.
Six steps towards making better decisions:
Process Activities Process Steps Process Output
1. Site visits Observe the problem Sufficient information
Conferences environment and support to proceed
Observation
Research
2. Define use Analyze and define Clear grasp of need for
Define objectives and nature of solution
Define limitations requested
3. MS/OR tools Develop a model Model that works under
Interrelationships identified limitations
Mathematical models
Known solutions
Research
4. Internal/external data Select appropriate data Sufficient inputs to
Facts input operate and test model
Opinions
Computer data banks
5. Testing Provide a solution and Solution(s) that support
Limitations test its reasonableness current organizational
Verification objectives
6. Behavioral issues...

...
Quantitative Research
Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Security
Professor Beshears
27 February 2014
Quantitative research collects numerical data through surveys, questionnaires, and polls. Quantitative research main purpose is to find the relationship between two variables. According to Babbie (2010) a descriptive study establishes only associations between variables while experimental defines the casualties (pg. 1). The data that is collected from the research is usually used for bigger representation of a population. The data can also be repeated if it was considered to be very accurate and reliable. Every part of quantitative research is scrutinized very carefully before the data is actually collected. The data that is collected is always in a statistics form or number form. Quantitative research can be used to investigate causal relationships, tell the future, or generalize concepts more widely. According to Babbie (2010) to the main purpose of quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed (pg. 1). There are four approaches under the Quantitative research and they are descriptive research, correlation research, causal-comparative research, and experimental research.
The research that gathers the information to test the...

...
Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods
Sabina Baniya
Kathmandu University School of Management
Kathmandu University, Kathmandu
February 2013
There are different research methods that have been guided by different philosophy of science that were developed by philosopher, researcher and sociologist at their time of era. The well-known researchmethods are quantitative research methods. Quantitative are numerical methods associated with deductive approaches. Quantitative research methods are usually guided by the principles of positivism as it takes on objective reality and accepts single reality. Quantitativemethods are usually used to measure size, observe numerical change over time, audience segmentation, testing hypothesis, and, quantifying attitudes, behaviors and opinions. The main importance of quantitative research is on deductive reasoning which tends to move from the general to the specific. The validity of conclusions is shown to be dependent on one or more premises being valid. For example, All students who study MBA in Kathmandu University works in a bank. Seema studies in MBA in Kathmandu University. Based on the premises, we can say that Seema works in a bank. Premises used in deductive...

...different research methods that are qualitative and quantitativemethods endeavouring to highlight differences and similarities between them, and providing example how they are applied through airline industry.
According to Kotler et al.( 2010 p. 124-125) “ Marketing research is a process that identifies and defines marketing opportunities and problems, monitors and evaluates marketing actions and performance, and communicates the findings and implications to managements.” This basically means that, a marketing research is a process of collecting, recording and evaluating the information related to customers’ needs and wants and products that are design to supply demand. This need for market research is derived from the concept that, only by creating profitable relationships with customers through understanding and creating value and effectively meeting customers wants and needs shall lead to organisational success (Kotler, 2008). However, creating relationships with customers through marketing concept takes works, for example the company need to search for consumers and to identify their needs, design excellent market offerings while setting competitive prices to promote and deliver them (Kotler, 2008). This particular purpose in marketing is achieved through conducting marketing research process such as Quantitative and Qualitative research methods to seek understanding of customer’s motivations...

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Psychological Research Methods: Exploring Qualitative and Quantitative Research
In psychology, answers to our questions are not as succinct as in other types of sciences, and the findings essentially depend upon the underlying epistemology used. This essay seeks to define and examine the fields of qualitative and quantitative research. It will address the different epistemologies and methodologies of each paradigm, and aim to give you a brief overview of the two main research methods underlying scientific knowledge.
Qualitative research is often only defined in contrast to Quantitative research; That is, it does not involve statistics, nor does it depend on the level of objectivity that characterises the quantitative approach. While quantitative research aims to categorise participants in numerical form by creating statistical models to answer specific hypothesises; Qualitative research does not start with a specific hypothesis, instead it seeks to understand behaviours, and experiences (McQueen & Knussen, 2013, p.422).
Qualitative researchers tend to operate under different epistemological beliefs than that of quantitative researchers. Unlike quantitative researchers who use fixed instruments with little flexibility, Qualitative researchers allow questions to emanate and reshape themselves as the research unfolds...

...Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods
PSY 326
Dr. Willow Aureala
March 29, 2011
Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods
There are two types of research methods: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research methods are complex meaningful analyses characterized by processes and meanings that are not measured in terms of mathematical measurements.Quantitative research however, relies and builds on mathematical procedures and methods, such as frequency, quality, amount and statistical procedure. There are unique characteristics which distinguish one research process from the other.
Purpose
The purpose of research is to answer questions by using a “predefined set of procedures” (Mack, Woodsong, MacQueen, & Namey, 2005). Each type of research, qualitative and quantitative, seeks to achieve this purpose with a different approach.
“Qualitative research provides information about the ‘human’ side of an issue – that is, the often contradictory behaviors, beliefs, opinion, emotions, and relationships of individuals” (Mack, et al, 2005). Concerned with the “how” and “why”, it seeks to understand and describe naturally occurring phenomena. Qualitative research is approached using grounded theory, interviews, in-depth interviews, and focus groups to discover and interpret the meanings and perceptions of a...