Quantitative and Qualitative Critiques

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Critique 1
Edwal et al study (2007):
This study was conducted within the primary care in Sweden. The research question is designed to get better understanding of the lived experience of type 2 diabetes patients, during regular check-ups with the diabetes nurse specialists. Research Methods

This research is a qualitative study using the phenomenological-hermenetic method. Parahoo (2006) states that qualitative research explores the individual’s beliefs and life experiences in order to gain an in depth-insight, and tries to understand human behaviours .Phenomenology focuses on people with lived experience which aims to find out the full picture of the participant’s own point of view during certain events in life. (Macnee, 2004). Sampling

Burns and Grove (2007) suggest that collection of samples for the study involves gathering a subset of the overall population who are interested in the research topic. In this study, the method is a purposive sample, which normally involves a small number of participants so that the researcher can more easily gain better understanding on the participant’s lived experience. An adequate sample size of 10 women and 10 men for the six month study period were deliberately selected from a primary care setting waiting list of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, having been on the waiting list for three months or more. Macnee,(2004) states that the researcher purposely chose these participants because they fitted patient age, language, and metabolic control criteria best suited to the research questions, and provided important data for this and other studies. Participants criteria such as being inclusively aged 30 and over, with type 2 diabetes, excluding non Swedish speakers can strengthen the credibility of the study. White (2009) commented that this method has a high risk of bias of the sample selection because the participants were handpicked, therefore cannot be used to accurately represent the population being targeted. However, Pilot and Beck (2006) stated that purposive sampling is employed in qualitative phenomenological approaches, to enable the researchers to obtain important data which is relevant to the topic being investigated. This method fits the purpose in the study to elucidate the participants lived experience, and therefore small sample size is ideal. Data collection

Dougherty (2009) states that data collection in qualitative research is conducted in three ways: in depth interviews, direct observation, and written documents. In this study, it was clearly identified that narrative interviews were performed to collect the data. The goal of the interview is to gain an authentic in-sight into the participant’s experience during the period of the study (Burns and Grove, 2007). Narrative interviews were conducted in primary care settings or, in the participant’s homes, which are ideal for the researcher because this provides an opportunity to observe the participants environment which helps widen the interviewer’s interpretation during the process. In the article, the interviewer only asked one open question which could be considered biased to the study and may distort the results. Burns and Grove, (2007) further added that conducting interview questions should be an open format in order to allow the participants to raise any issues. This was not addressed by the interviewer in the article. This could limit the effectiveness of the whole interview process. Interviews were taped-recorded to ensure all details of the whole process are retained. Pilot and Beck (2006) stated that face-to-face interviews require a lot of time, and are an expensive way of collecting data. However, this method is said to be the best way of obtaining rich information to support the credibility of the findings. Data Analysis

Parahoo (2006) states that in qualitative study data is analysed during the process of data collection, the interviewer then arrange them into themes. Geanellos (2000)...
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