Critical Success Factors of Total Quality Management Kumar et al. (2009) defined Total Quality Management (TQM) as a comprehensive process to improving quality, productivity, and competitiveness in the international marketplace. Yang (2005) provided more details in which total quality management is a general section of management which this factor emphasize on competitive advantage, quality improvement, customer requirements. According to Yang (2005), total quality management has positive impact on facilitating solving problem and decision-making process. TQM also has an important role in continuous improvement of organization. Total quality management is a management integrative system for developing the quality of services and goods by means of the take part of all purposes and levels. Every person has a determining role in the production of quality services and goods. In another study, as cited by Wilson et al, (2000) total quality management is a organization method for creating arrangement wide take part in scheming and creating a continuous improvement action that joins and increases customer requirements. (Kumar et al, 2009). According to Rad (2006), TQM cannot only help organization to increase customer satisfaction but also help firms to form an effective culture. Total quality management is a constantly developing management belief for organizations. The beliefs engages a systematic, unchanging, integrated, organization extend attitude engaging everything and every person.
There is a general agreement that TQM is a way to manage an organization for developing its overall effectiveness to compete internationally (Easton and Jarrell, 1998; Handﬁeld, Ghosh and Fawcett, 1998; Hendricks and Singhal, 30 European Journal of Economics, Finance And Administrative Sciences - Issue 33 (2011) 1997; Anderson, Rungtusanatham & Schroeder, 1994; Kanji and Tambi, 1999; Kunst & Lemmink, 2000).
According to Al-khalifa and Aspinwall (2008), the level of awareness and knowledge of critical success factors of TQM has been increased considerably during last decade. Many studies have investigated such Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of TQM implementation. Some CSFs such as leadership, teamwork, and customer focus were widely addressed by Karuppusami and Gandhinathan (2006) and Al-khalifa et al. (2008). Some other CSFs like top management support, training and education, process management, supplier quality management, and customer centric were investigated by Saraph, Benson and Schroeder (1989), Black and Porter (1996), Motwani (2001), Antony, Leung, Knowles and Gosh (2002), and Sila and Ebrahimpour (2005). These studies were carried out through many disciplines involving review of the literature, case studies and empirical researches (Karuppusami & Gandhinathan, 2006). The advantages of total quality management are to increase profit, to satisfy customer, to develop market share, and to create competitive advantage (Rad, 2006). However, sometimes TQM implementation cannot end with these advantages (Seetharaman, Sreenivasan & Boon, 2006).
This is why Critical Success Factors of TQM implementation should be investigated for each country and industry separately. This idea is enforced when many of the literatures were reviewed. According to review of literatures in critical success factors of TQM discipline, majority of the empirical researches were conducted in countries such as USA, Canada, and UK. However, there are no sufficient studies in developing countries (Thiagarajan and Zairi, 1998), and especially among the Middle East countries (Najeh and Kara-Zaitri, 2007).
Business organizations have become more competitive in the 21st century due to globalization and growing competition. The global marketplace, changes in customer values, rapid changes in technology, and increased economic pressures on companies have led to an increased interest in quality management. Many organizations around the globe have implemented...
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