Qualitative Research Methods

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AN INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOURTH EDITION SAGE

© U w e Flick 2009 This f o u r t h edition first published 2009 First edition published 1998 Second edition published 2002 T h i r d edition published 2006 R e p r i n t e d 2010

Originally published as Qualitative Forschung in the 'rowohlts enzyklopadie' series. C o p y r i g h t © 1995 R o w o h l t Taschenbuch Verlag G m b H , R e i n b e k bei H a m b u r g . Apart f r o m any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as p e r m i t t e d u n d e r the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any f o r m , or by any means, only w i t h the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance w i t h the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.

SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver's Yard 55 City R o a d L o n d o n EC1Y ISP

SAGE Publications Inc. 2455 Teller R o a d T h o u s a n d Oaks, California 91320

SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B 1 / 1 1 M o h a n Cooperative Industrial A r e a Mathura Road N e w Delhi 110 044

SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd 33 Pekin Street #02-01 Far East Square Singapore 048763

Library of Congress Control Number 2008933314 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this b o o k is available f r o m the British Library ISBN 9 7 8 - 1 - 8 4 7 8 7 - 3 2 3 - 1 I S B N 9 7 8 - 1 - 8 4 7 8 7 - 3 2 4 - 8 (pbk)

Typeset by C & M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India Printed in Great Britian by Ashford C o l o u r Press Ltd., Gosport, Hants Printed on paper f r o m sustainable resources

SUMMARY OF CONTENTS
PART 1 1 2 3 4 FRAMEWORK 1 3 11 23 35 45 47 56 74 87 89 97 105 114 127 147 149 176 194 210 219 221 239 254 263 281 Guide to This Book Qualitative Research: Why and How to Do It Qualitative and Quantitative Research Ethics of Qualitative Research F R O M T H E O R Y TO T E X T

PART 2

5 Making Use of the Literature in Qualitative Research 6 Theoretical Positions Underlying Qualitative Research 7 Epistemological Background: Construction and Understanding of Texts PART 3 8 9 10 11 12 RESEARCH DESIGN

The Qualitative Research Process Research Questions Entering the Field Sampling How to Design Qualitative Research: An Overview VERBAL DATA

PART 4 13 14 15 16

Interviews Narratives Focus Groups Verbal Data: An Overview O B S E R V A T I O N A N D MEDIATED D A T A

PART 5 17 18 19 20 21

Observation and Ethnography Visual Data: Photography, Film, and Video Using Documents as Data Qualitative Online Research: Using the Internet Observation and Mediated Data: An Overview

vi AN INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
PART 6 22 23 24 25 26 27 F R O M T E X T TO T H E O R Y 291 293 305 333 345 358 373

Documentation of Data Coding and Categorizing Analyzing Conversation, Discourse, and Genres Narrative and Hermeneutic Analysis Using Computers in Qualitative Analysis Text Interpretation: An Overview GROUNDING AND WRITING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

PART 7

381 383 400 413

28 Quality Criteria in Qualitative Research 29 The Quality of Qualitative Research: Beyond Criteria 30 Writing Qualitative Research PART 8 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: INTEGRATION A N D OUTLOOK

425 427 443 454 467 476 492 496 505

31 Qualitative Research at Work I: Grounded Theory 32 Qualitative Research at Work II:Triangulation 33 Qualitative Research: State of the Art and the Future Glossary References Author Index Subject Index About the Author

CONTENTS

List of Boxes List of Figures List of Tables List of Case Studies Preface to the Fourth Edition PART 1 FRAMEWORK

xv xvii xviii xix xxi 1 3 4 4 8 10 11 12 12 14 17 20 23 24 25 29 29 30 30 31 32 35

1 G u i d e to This B o o k Approach of the Book Structure of the Book Special Features of the...
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