The word culture has many different meanings. For some it refers to an appreciation of good literature, music, art, and food However, for anthropologists and other behavioral scientists, culture is the full range of learned human behavior patterns. The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward B. Tylor in his book, Primitive Culture, published in 1871. Tylor said that culture is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Of course, it is not limited to men. Women possess and create it as well. Since Tylor's time, the concept of culture has become the central focus of anthropology. Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but it is a fragile phenomenon. It is constantly changing and easily lost because it exists only in our minds. Our written languages, governments, buildings, and other man-made things are merely the products of culture. They are not culture in themselves. For this reason, archeologist can not dig up culture directly in their excavations. The broken pots and other artifacts of ancient people that they uncover are only material remains that reflect cultural patterns they are things that were made and used through cultural knowledge and skills.
Pakistan has a rich cultural diversity as the society is largely multilingual, multi-ethnic and multicultural. The Pakistani society comprises various diverse cultures and ethnic communities that majorly involve Punjabi, Sindhi, Baloch, Pashtun, Seraiki, Mohair, Kashmiri, Makrani, and the ancient Wakhi and Burusho groups in the north. These Pakistani cultures have been greatly influenced by many of the surrounding countries' cultures, such as the Turkic people, Persian, Arab and other South Asian ethnic Asian group of the Subcontinent, Central Asia and the Middle East.
Pakistan is in general linguistically heterogeneous, and no single language can be said to be common to the whole population. Each of its principal languages has a strong regional focus. The languages claimed as mother tongue include Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, Seraiki, Kashmiri, Brahui, Hindko and Potohohari. Urdu is the national language and one of two official languages of Pakistan (the other being English). Although only about 8% of Pakistanis speak it as their first language, it is spoken as a second and often third language by almost all citizens of Pakistan.
Pakistan is a special interest destination as its main attraction includes adventure tourism in the Northern Areas, cultural and archaeological tourism as found at Taxila, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Swat, and early Mughal and Muslim heritage of Multan, Lahore, Thatta and Peshawar. From the mighty Karakorams in the North to the vast alluvial delta of the Indus River in the South, Pakistan remains a land full of adventures and natural beauties having peaceful general masses.
The enthusiasm for poetry exists at a regional level as well, with nearly all of Pakistan's provincial languages continuing the legacy. Poetry is a highly respected art in Pakistan. Since the independence of the country in 1947 and establishment of Urdu as the national language, poetry is mostly written in the Urdu as well as regional languages. The Urdu language has a rich tradition of poetry and Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal is regarded as the National Poet of Pakistan. Apart from Urdu poetry, Pakistani poetry also has blends of other regional languages. Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Seraiki, and Pashto poetry have all incorporated and influenced Pakistani poetry.
The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayeki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronization of Qawwali and western music by the world renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. In...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document