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Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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CHAPTER I
Introduction

Background and Rationale of the Study
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that primarily affects the lung parenchyma caused by slow-growing bacteria that resembles a fungus. It is usually spread from person to person by droplet nuclei through the air. The lung is the usual infection site but may also be transmitted to other parts of the body, including the meninges, kidneys, bones, and lymph nodes. The primary infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis,is an acid-fast aerobic rod that grows slowly and is sensitive to heat and ultraviolet light. Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium have rarely been associated with the development of a TB infection (Brunner and Suddarth, 2003). In healthy people, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis often causes no symptoms, since the person's immune system acts to “wall off” the bacteria. Tuberculosis is treatable with a six-month course of antibiotics (World Health Organization, 2013). Tuberculosis is a worldwide public health problem, and the mortality and morbidity rates continue to rise. In 2011, the largest number of new TB cases occurred in Asia, accounting for 60% of new cases globally. There were about 8.7 million people fell ill with TB and 1.4 million died from TB. Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and it is among the top three causes of death for women aged 15 to 44 (World Health Organization, 2013). Tuberculosis is also the leading cause of death among HIV-positive people. At least one-third of the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide are infected with TB bacteria, although not yet ill with active TB. People living with HIV and infected with TB are 21 to 34 times more likely to develop active TB disease than people without HIV (World Health Organization, 2013). The Philippines is among the 22 high burden countries for tuberculosis, according to the World Health Organization. It is the 6th leading cause of illness and the 6th...