Transportation moves people and goods from one place to another using a variety of vehicles across different infrastructure systems. It does this using not only technology (namely vehicles, energy, and infrastructure), but also people’s time and eﬀort ; producing not only the desired outputs of passenger trips and freight shipments, but also adverse outcomes such as air pollution, noise, congestion, crashes, injuries, and fatalities.
Transportation is often divided into infrastructure modes: e.g. highway, rail, water, pipeline and air. These can be further divided. Highways include different vehicle types: cars, buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians. Transportation can be further separated into freight and passenger, and urban and inter-city. Passenger transportation is divided in public (or mass) transit (bus, rail, commercial air) and private transportation (car, taxi, general aviation). These modes of course intersect and interconnect. At-grade crossings of railroads and highways, inter-modal transfer facilities (ports, airports, terminals, stations). Different combinations of modes are often used on the same trip. I may walk to my car, drive to a parking lot, walk to a shuttle bus, ride the shuttle bus to a stop near my building, and walk into the building where I take an elevator. Transportation is usually considered to be between buildings (or from one address to another), although many of the same concepts apply within buildings. The operations of an elevator and bus have a lot in common, as do a forklift in a warehouse and a crane at a port.
Social Roles of Transportation:
The advances in transportation technology have had a very
substantial impact on long distance and less regular travel. With the advents of the railways, intercity buses, air services and private cars, travel at long distance is now common, not only for extended vacations but even for a single day of weekend trips As mobility increases, the ability to Travel long distances has enabled people to travel to other sections of the country and even to other countries which have different cultures, dominant industries and patterns of living. This has undoubtedly had a very considerable effect in the level of understanding of different groups and the mutual respect of one socio-economic group for another. This has also helped to bring nations with multiple cultural heritages together.The introduction of the aeroplane, automobile and other mode has increased business and social contacts. Not only that, it has also increased the extent of travel from a kilometer to over one thousand kilometers per day The development of air services has facilitated vacation and other recreational travels over a long distance without a short time.The increase in speed of transportation and the reduction in the costs of transportation have resulted in a much wider variety of special patterns for human activities. The concord aircraft, a joint governments, has reduced the airtime between New York and London to barely five hours. The world has been reduced into a global village as a result of development in transportation technology.
Economic Role of Transportation:
Economic activities are primarily concerned with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services, which are of value to human. People must use the natural resources of the earth to satisfy the necessity of life, to provide food, clothing and shelter to the teeming population of the country. Not only for these basic necessities but also to use the resources to make life more pleasant, comfortable and rewarding. These resources are not usually found all in one place and no location is well endowed with all the resources. Thus, there is the universal need to transport some of these natural resource from places where they are abundantly available to areas where they are needed but not available. Most communities now consume food items produced in...
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