Public Speaking Definition

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Chapter 1

Speaker

The person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.

Message

Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else.

Channel

The means by which a message is communicated.

Listener

The person who receives the speaker’s message.

Frame of reference

The sum of a person’s knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.

Feedback

The messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker.

Interference

Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners.

Situation

The time and place in which speech communication occurs.

Ethnocentrism

The belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.

Chapter 2

Ethics

The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs.

Ethical decisions

Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines.

Name calling

The use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups.

Bill of rights

The first 10 amendments to the United State Constitution.

Plagiarism

Presenting another person’s language or ideas as one’s own.

Patchwork plagiarism

Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one’s own.

Global plagiarism

Stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one’s own.

Incremental plagiarism

Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.

Paraphrase

To restate or summarize an author’s ideas in one’s own words.

Chapter 3

Hearing

The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.

Listening

Paying close attention to , and making sense of, what we hear.

Appreciative listening

Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.

Empathic listening

Listening to provide emotional support for a speaker

Comprehensive listening

Listening to understand the message of a speaker

Critical listening

Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.

Spare ”brain time”

The difference between the rate at which most people talk(120 to 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 800 words a minute)

Active listening

Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker’s point of view.

Key-word outline

An outline that briefly notes a speaker’s main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form.

Chapter 4

Topic

The subject of a speech.

Brainstorming

A method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas.

General purpose

The broad goal of a speech.

Specific purpose

A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.

Central idea

A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.

Residual message

What speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech.

Chapter 5

Audience-centeredness

Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation.

Identification

A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.

Egocentrism

The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being.

Demographic audience analysis

Audience analysis that...
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