The various government agencies were established by the government plan, control, assist and implement agency will be able to perform its functions smoothly, the agencies concerned must be organised in a proper, systematic and effective manner. In addition, the government would appoint officers to hold public services posts at various levels.
The administration of a government agency would be incomplete without financial allocation to pay for all its activities. To finance the agencies, a yearly allocation is given based on their financial needs to enable the agencies to carry out activities and responsibilities entrusted to them. At present, the agencies established are responsible for providing public services in the field of social (welfare), economy, security and law.
In the government administrative machinery the government agencies are comprised of three main components, namely ministries, departments and statutory bodies. At ministerial level the functions of the main agencies are to formulate, control and implement government policies, while a department levels the agencies are responsible for implementing all the policies. Agencies of statutory bodies are semi government in structure and are responsible for carrying out duties assigned to them to meet the government aspiration.
DEFINITION OF CENTRAL AGENCIES
Central agencies are bureaucratic structures which perform functions thought to be crucial to the common interests of government departments. Central agencies take the lead in or contribute greatly to the performance by coordinating the development of related policies between departments, developing policies which various departments must follow and monitoring the implementation of policies. Widely recognized that senior officials in central agencies play roles in the policy process that pose serious questions about their accountability to Parliament. More directly, several circumstances surrounding central agents position in government, point up the degree to which these officials are a breed very much apart from those in other departments. They are enjoying very high levels of educational and professional achievement. They are young and share a confident perception of success and upward mobility. They also strong motivations and feelings of personal satisfaction and efficacy, coupled with the reality of high incomes and security of tenure in public service. They can work in small organizational unit, characterized by collegial decision making. Before embarking on an analysis of central agents’ accountability, the concepts of responsibility and accountability require conceptual clarification.
Five such functions may be delineated
1)Development of strategic planning and formulation of substantive policy 2)Development of integrated economic and fiscal policy
3)Allocation of budgets and management of government resources 4)Management of senior personnel
5)Conduct of federal provincial relations
FUNCTION OF CENTRAL AGENCIES
Budget and management central agencies tend to be key players in public management subsystems, given their expertise, continuity, and power. The common pattern in performance management adoption has been for elected officials to rely on central agencies to design and oversee reforms, and states with influential budget officers tend to be the most enthusiastic adopters of performance management systems.
Central agency officials are therefore in a strong position to select and shape policy ideas to match their preferences. In each state the main promoters of performance management were central agencies, primarily the finance department, and to a lesser extent the state wide personnel office and legislative auditors. Together, this group of actors made up the main formal source of public management reform expertise within government, although states with less internal capacity relied proportionately more on consultants.
Central agency staff may not be...