Course:Public Relation PRO458
Lecturer’s Name:Pn. RohaniMazlan
Student’s Name:NurulShahsofeaBinti Muhammad
TABLE OF CONTENTS
No. Topic Page 1.Introduction(Public Relation Theory) 1
1.1Theories of Relationship(System Theory) 2
1.2Theories of Relationship(Situational theory) 7
2. Summary 9 3. Reference 10
Public Relation Theory
Theories predict the way things work or happen. They provide an understanding of the relationship between actions and events. As a public relations practitioner, you will need to be able to explain why and how your plans and proposals will work. Your supervisor and your coworkers will be more convinced to support your opinions if you have theories and evidence to back them up.A theory is a prediction of how events and actions are related. For example, Public relation reporter described as a failure a federally funded message campaign to frighten kids off drugs. Research showed that kids who reported seeing the ads were using marijuana even more than those who had not seen the ads. What caused this waste of $180 million a year? One expert said, “Scaring kids doesn’t work. When people try pot for the ﬁrst time, they wonder what the big deal is. Then, they don’t believe the other stuff. The ads are not realistic.”This opinion reﬂects a great deal of theory on the use of fear appeals. Fear appeals theory predicts that there will be little change with an overreliance on fear appeals that threaten physical harm. More persuasive are balanced arguments with incentives for changing behavior.This prediction is called a theory.As a public relations manager, you should have knowledge of different theories so that you can make the right decisions for your public relations plans and programs. Your value to your employer or client will be directly related to how well you use theory in your work.
Theories of Relationship
Both systems theory and situational theory are considered as the theories of relationships.
Definition:The attitudes and actions of an organizations or public contribute to a cause-effect chain reaction within their environment.The parts of an organization and public exist in relationship to each other,meaning the actions of one past affect the others.When applying systems theory in public relations it is especially useful to publicrelations because it helps the practitioner manage the organization’s relationship.It comprised of two systems which is closed system and open system.Closed system is focusing on the history of the organisation and makes decisions based on past experience.Open system is focusing on input from external publics and the organization’s external environment. Systems theory is useful in public relations because it gives us a way to think about relationships. Generally, systems theory looks at organizations as made up of interrelated parts, adapting and adjusting to changes in the political, economic, and social environments in which they operate. Organizations have recognizable boundaries, within which there must be a communication structure that guides the parts of the organization to achieve organizational goals. The leaders of the organization create and maintain these internal structures. Grunig, Grunig, and Dozier state that the systems perspective emphasizes the interdependence of organizations with their environments, both internal and external to the organization. According to the systems perspective, organizations depend on resources from their environments, such as “raw materials, a source of employees, and clients or customers for the services or products they produce. The environment needs the organization for its...