Public Expenditure and Economic Growth in India

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PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

WHAT IS PUBLIC EXPENDITURE?

MEANING:
Public expenditure refers to Government expenditure i.e. Government spending. It is incurred by Central, State and Local governments of a country.

Spending by government , municipality, or any local authority. It covers things such as health, education or social services and is funded by tax revenue. It is one of the element that make up aggregate expenditure.

Government spending or government expenditure is classified by economists into three main types. Government acquisition of goods and services for current use to directly satisfy individual or collective needs of the members of the community is classed as government final consumption expenditure. Government acquisition of goods and services intended to create future benefits, such as infrastructure investment or research spending, is classed as government investment (gross fixed capital formation), which usually is the largest part of the government gross capital formation. Acquisition of goods and services is made through own production by the government (using the government's labor force, fixed assets and purchased goods and services for intermediate consumption) or through purchases of goods and services from market producers. Government expenditures that are not acquisition of goods and services, and instead just represent transfers of money, such as social security payments, are called transfer payments. Government spending can be financed by seignior age, taxes, or government borrowing.

DEFINITION:
Public expenditure can be defined as, "The expenditure incurred by public authorities like central, state and local governments to satisfy the collective social wants of the people is known as public expenditure."

Throughout the 19th Century, most governments followed laissez faire economic policies & their functions were only restricted to defending aggression & maintaining law & order. The size of public expenditure was very small. But now the expenditure of governments all over has significantly increased. In the early 20th Century, John Maynard Keynes advocated the role of public expenditure in determination of level of income and its distribution.

In developing countries, public expenditure policy not only accelerates economic growth & promotes employment opportunities but also plays a useful role in reducing poverty and inequalities in income distribution.

ECONOMIC GROWTH
Economic development is a broad term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific area. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development of human capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environmental sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy, and other initiatives. It should be noted that economic development differs from economic growth. Whereas economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP. An increase in the capacity of an economy to produce goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. Economic growth can be measured in nominal terms, which include inflation, or in real terms, which are adjusted for inflation. For comparing one country's economic growth to another, GDP or GNP per capita should be used as these take into account population differences between countries. A positive change in the level of production of goods and services by a country over a certain period of time. Nominal growth is defined as economic growth including inflation, while real growth is nominal growth minus inflation. Economic growth is usually brought about by technological innovation and positive external forces. By Economic Growth we simply mean increase in per capita income or increase in GNP. In...
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