Public Administration: Concepts and Practice

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PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE

IV. CURRENT ISSUES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2008

CONTENTS
1. 2. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7 8. 9.

INTERDICIPLINARY INTERFACE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC POLICY PUBLIC CHOICE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW BUREAUCRATIC POWER ACCOUNTABILITY AND ETHICS BUREAUCRACY AND POLITICS DECENTRALIZATION DIGITAL (E) – GOVERNANCE

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INTERDICIPLINARY INTERFACE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
• ADMINISTRATIVE LAW • DISCRETIONARY POWERS

LAW

POLITICS

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

BUSINESS

MANAGEMENT PUBLIC POLICY

ECONOMICS
PUBLIC CHOICE

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PUBLIC POLICY
THE STUDY OF PUBLIC POLICY AND POLICY ANALYSIS IS NOW A WELL ESTABLISHED PART OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. PUBLIC POLICY IS A COURSE OF ACTION ADOPTED AND PURSUED BY GOVERNMENT (HENRY 2004) (HENRY, 2004). PUBLIC POLICY REFERS TO THE DECISIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT, TO A PURPOSIVE COURSE OF ACTION TAKEN BY GOVERNMENTAL ACTORS IN PURSUING SOLUTIONS TO PERCEIVED PROBLEMS (LEMAY, 2002). PUBLIC POLICY CAN BEST BE VIEWED AS A PROCESS, A , SET OR SERIES OF STAGES THROUGH WHICH POLICY IS ESTABLISHED AND IMPLEMENTED. THE POLICY PROCESS CONSISTS OF A SUCCESSION OF ANALYTICAL STAGES (LEMAY, 2002) www.ginandjar.com

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PUBLIC POLICY
FOR MANY YEARS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS WERE SEEN AS NEUTRAL IMPLEMENTORS OF PUBLIC POLICIES SHAPED AND DESIGNED ELSEWHERE IN THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS. SINCE THE 1960s, WITH THE GROWTH OF PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS, BOTH THE POLICY PROCESS ITSELF AND THE , ROLE OF PUBLIC A RATION IN IT HAVE BEEN REEVALUATED. PROCEEDING FROM THE PREMISE THAT POLITICS IS MESSY AND IMPRECISE PROPONENTS OF PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS IMPRECISE, ARGUE THAT THE INTRODUCTION OF RIGOROUS ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGIES AND DECISION TOOLS WILL DRAMATICALLY IMPROVE BOTH THE DEFINITION OF PUBLIC PROBLEMS AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO THEM. www.ginandjar.com 5

PUBLIC POLICY
FURTHER, IT IS ARGUED THAT MORE RATIONAL DECISION PROCESSES WILL NOT ONLY BE MORE EFFICIENT, EFFICIENT BUT ALSO MORE RESPONSIVE TO CITIZEN NEEDS AND PREFERENCES. THIS VERSION OF PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS VALUES OBJECTIVITY AND NEUTRALITY; IT IS BASED ON AN ABIDING BELIEF IN TECHNICAL ANALYSIS AND ABILITIES.

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PUBLIC POLICY
IT MAKES USE OF TECHNIQUES DEVELOPED IN THE FIELDS OF ECONOMICS, MATHEMATICS, STATISTICS, OPERATIONS RESEARCH, AND SYSTEMS DYNAMICS, AMONG OTHERS, TO PROVIDE DECISION MAKERS WITH ADVICE IN THE FORMULATION OF PUBLIC POLICY. IN APPLYING THOSE TECHNIQUES, THE ANALYST MAY ALSO DRAW ON KNOWLEDGE FROM FIELDS SUCH AS SOCIOLOGY, POLITICAL SCIENCE, WELFARE ECONOMICS, LAW, ORGANIZATION - THEORY, THE PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL , SCIENCES, AND ELSEWHERE. POLICY ANALYSIS MUST TAKE THE ANALYST WHEREVER THE POLICY ISSUE LEADS, MAKING ANALYSIS THE MULTI DISIPLINARY ACTIVITY PAR EXCELLENCE.

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PUBLIC POLICY
POLICY ANALYSIS INCLUDES:
1) 2) 3) 4) ) 5) 6)

IDENTIFYING THE “PROBLEM” TO BE RESOLVED, SPECIFYING THE GOAL(S) TO BE SOUGHT THROUGH PUBLIC POLICY, IDENTIFYING OR INVENTING THE AVAILABLE POLICY ALTERNATIVES, ESTIMATING THE EFFECTS OF EACH OF THE ALTERNATIVES, BOTH , FAVORABLE AND UNFAVORABLE, IMPUTING VALUES IN A SINGLE, COMMENSURABLE MATRIX TO THOSE EFFECTS, AND CHOOSING THE “BEST” POLICY ALTERNATIVE ACCORDING TO AN EXPLICIT DECISION RULE.

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PUBLIC CHOICE
IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE LAST CENTURY, THE DISCIPLINE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEVELOPED WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK SET BY WILSON. THE ENDS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WERE SEEN AS THE "MANAGEMENT OF MEN AND MATERIAL IN THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE PURPOSES OF THE STATE."

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PUBLIC CHOICE
IN HIS BOOK: ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR (1945), HERBERT SIMON, SUSTAINED A DEVASTATING CRITIQUE OF THE THEORY IMPLICIT IN THE TRADITIONAL STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. SIMON ELUCIDATED SOME OF...
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