Governmental power is three-fold, legislative, to make laws; judicial and to interpret the and to execute or carry out those laws. There is a separate organ which will look after each function
function, but the separation is not rigid. A complete separation would lead to perpetual deadlocks in administration. Thus there are various points of contact between all the three organs of the government to ensure smooth functioning of governmental programmes. With expanding complexity of the activities of the modern State, the Legislature is not in a position to have direct dealings with the administrator and so is the executive branch which is becoming more and more powerful. The modern State assigns a variety of functions to the executive. Thus it has become a vital part of the government.
In this unit, we shall analyse the functions of the chief executive in the light of the differences between the real and the nominal executive. The unit will also highlight the growing strength and importance of the chief exccutive.We shall also discuss the need for staff and line agencies for advising the chief executive and in carrying out his policies. The unit will enable the student to understand the crucial role of chief executive in the task of administration. We will also come to know the factors and forces behind the chief executive at the Union, State and local levels. The executive is that branch of government which is charged with the execution of taws. It consists of various administrative agencies which are involved in the implementation of the laws. According to F.A. Nigro, "the executive branch of government in Public Administration is a truly visible form". The executive branch of the government includes the chief executive and the civil servants who execute the laws made by the legislature. Thus the role of the executive is of paramount importance. . By 'chief executive' we mean the person or body of persons at the head of the administrative system of a country. The administrative hierarchy of a country resemb1es.a pyramid, broad at the base and tapering off towards the top till it ends at a single point, the apex. The chief executive is at the apex of the administrative pyramid. He is a person or persons in whom the executive power has been authoritatively vested for performing various functions. In a political system, the person or persons in whom the constitution vests the executive power of the government is the chief executive. In public or private organisations, the person who is at the top position with the major responsibility of carrying out the work of organisations is the chief executive. The chief executive has to perform various political and administrative functions. He occupies a central position in Public Administration. He determines the goals of the organisation, prepares plans, determines the tasks, fixes priorities, takes crucial decisions, mobilises resources, recryits personnel, coordinates the work of all the departments under him, motivates the personnel, provides leadership and supervises . the implementation of plans. He sees that goals of organisation are achieved with maximum efficiency and optimum use of resources. The success or failure of an organisation, therefore, depends on the dynamic nature and character of the chief executive.
The type of executive varies with the form of government. In a dictatorship, the chief executive comes to power through a military coup and continues to be in power through army support. Modern democracies have either a Presidential or a Parliamentary/ Collegiate executive, which is chosen from, and responsible to, an eIected legislature. The parliamental and Presidential.
TYPES OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE :
In countries like India and the UK, with parliamentary system,the chief executive consists of the Prime Minister and other Ministers. The Prime Minister heads the cabinet in these countries. There is a close, continuous and intimate executive legislative...
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