PT2520 Unit 1 Research Assignment 1

Topics: SQL, Relational model, Database Pages: 4 (769 words) Published: March 22, 2015

SQL or Structured Query Language is a specialized language for updating, deleting, and requesting information form databases. SQL is also an ANSI and ISO standard, and is one of the only database query languages. A plethora of already established database products support SQL. Some of the products that support SQL are Oracle and Microsot SQL Server. It is widely used in both industry and college institutions. Usually for enormous, complex databases. (Base2013).

SQL was originally developed in the 1970’s by IBM to manipulate and retrieve data inside IBM system R. The SQL language then became standardized in 1986 by The American National Standards Institute or (ANSI); for short. But later releases were released as International Organization Standardization or (ISO) standards. (Inc., 2013)

Even though IBM was the original authors of SQL, the first SQL implementation was provided by Oracle Corporation, which was then known by the name Relational Software Inc. Early commercial implementations were concentrated on midsized UNIX-based DBMSs, such as Oracle, Ingres, and Informix. IBM however did follow finally in 1981 with SQL/DS, the forerunner to DB2, which made its release debut in 1983.

ANSI was the first to publish the SQL standard (SQL-86) in 1986. And international version of the standard issued by ISO debut in 1987. A gigantic update to SQL-86 was released in 1989 (SQL-89). Virtually, all relational DBMSs that you encounter today support most of the 1986 standard. In 1992, the standard was revised once again (SQL-92), adding more capabilities to the language. Because SQL-92 was a superset of SQL-89, older database application programs ran under the new standard with little to no modifications. Until October 1996, DBMS vendors could submit their products to NIST (National Institute for Standards and Technology) for verification of SQL standard compliance. The testing and certification process provided significant motivation for DBMS vendors to adhere...
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