Psycology

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OUTLINE

The purpose of this outline is to assist note taking and have a brief exposure to the lecture material before class. The detailed PowerPoint notes will be posted right after each class.

PART I: Emotion
I.The Nature of Emotion
What is emotion?
Multi-component responses to challenges or opportunities that are important to the individual’s goals, especially social ones. Major components include:
-Physiological changes
-Cognitive processes
-Action tendencies
-Cultural influences
a.Primary emotions
- Emotions considered to be unlversal and biologically based, usually thought to include fear, anger, sadness, happiness, surprise, disgust, and contempt. b.Secondary emotions
- Emotions that are specific to certain cultures or those that usually develp with cognitive maturity. c.Circumplex model of emotions
d.Adaptive qualities of positive and negative emotions
Negative emotions
-Evolved for survival purposes to detect and avoid threats. Ex: fear, disgust
Moral and social functions
Ex: embarrassment, guilt

i.Broaden-and-build model of positive emotions

-Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention, cognition, and action, which ultimately contributes in the building of physical, cognitive, and social resources for psychological well-being in the long run.

II.Emotion and the Body
a.Facial expressions
Fear
-Eyebrows raised and pulled together -Raised upper eye lids -Tensed lower eye lids -Lips slightly stretched
Anger
-Eye-browns down and together-Eyes glare -Clenched fists
Sadness
-Dropping upper eye-lids -Losing focus in the eyes-Slightly pulling down of lip-corners. Surprise
-Eye-browns raised -eyes widened – mouth open
Disgust
-Nose wrinkling -Upper-lip raised
Contempt
-Lip-corner tightened and raised on only one side of the face. Happiness
-Crow’s fear wrinkles pushed up cheeks -Movement of muscles orbiting the eyes. *Duchenne Smile
What is common here?
-Understanding silent ad foreign language movies even without subtitles. -Understanding other people’s emotions in foreign countries without much knowledge if their native language. *Strong reliance on non-verbal communication!

b.Communicating emotions
Display Rules: Social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or suppress) emotions. Body Language: includes non-verbal signals such as gestures, body movement, proximity during conversations, eye-gaze. Nonverbal Behavior

-Emblems
-Illustrators
-Regulators
-Self-adaptor
c.Brain and emotion
i.Amygdala- Responsible for assessing threat.
-Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality in processing fear.

ii.Cerebral cortex
Left prefrontal cortex-involved in motivation to approach others damage to this area results in loss of joy. Right prefrontal cortex-involved in withdrawal and escape damage to this area results in excessive mania and euphoria.

The energy of emotion
-Intense emotions releases two hormones:
1)Epinephrine
2)Norepinephrine
Leads to increased altertness and arousal.
At high levels, can create sensation of being out of control emotionally.

Emotions are created or influenced by
-Beliefs
-Perceptions of the situation
-Expectations
-Attributions

d.Autonomic nervous system

III.General Model of the Emotional Experience

IV.Emotion and Culture
-The term culture refers to psychological attributes of groups, which include, according to one writer, “customs, habits, beliefs, and values that shape emotions, behavior, and life patterns. Why study culture when understanding emotions?

-Possible limits on generalizability : it affored the opportunity to examine the degree to which emotional experiences and their measures generalize ( are universal). -Cross-cultural conflict
-Varieties of human experience
a.Individualism and collectivism
Compares the Western view of the...
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