* Sends a signal to the sympathetic ganglia
2. Sympathetic Ganglia
* Connected to internal organs
* Activates the Adrenal Medulla.
3. Adrenal Medulla
* Releases Adrenaline and Noradrenalin into the blood stream. * Prepares the body for fight or flight mode.
Stress as a Bodily Response
Stress if the lack of fit between the individual and their environment. What are the signs of stress?
* Increased Heart Rate
* Increase in Sweat
* Increase in pupil size (dilation)
* Increase in Adrenaline
When exposed to stressors the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is activated. The SNS either releases Adrenaline which prepares the body for flight or fight or releases glucose in the blood system for energy. The Autonomic Nervous System has 2 branches, Sympathetic Branch (SNS) and the Parasympathetic Branch (PNS). The SNS is affected when body is hit by stressors, the PNS used later-returns body back to resting state (HOMOSTATIS). PNS activated to slow down internal process. 2 Types of Stress
1. Acute Stress e.g. Unknown Pop Quiz in Class
2. Chronic Stress e.g. Whole Process of Sixth Form and Exams
Chronic Stress- Hypothalmic- Pituitary- Adrenal Axis
* Sends a message to the Pituitary Gland
2. Pituitary Gland
* Releases Adreno-Cortico-Tropic Hormone
* ACTH triggers the Adrenal Cortex
3. Adrenal Cortex
* Releases Cortisol into blood stream to ensure there is a steady flow of glucose in the blood stream.
Stress and the Immune System
The immune system helps protect the body against infection & disease (ANIGENS) Immune Systems Response
1. The virus infects the body
2. A Macrophage engulfs the Virus and then activates the T Cells (Thymus Cells) 3. T Cells turn into either B Cells (Bone marrow in blood stream) or Natural Killer Cells (Cytoxic Cells) 4. The Cytoxic Cells infect and destroy body cells.
5. The B Cells form Plasma Cells which make Antibodies
6. There a specific anti-bodies for different antigens. The specific antibodies will bind onto the antigens, which will kill the virus. Stress and Illness
* Stress on its own doesn’t make you ill, may increase the risk of illness * Linked to Cardiovascular Disorder & Immunosuppression Stress and the Immune System
* The ability to fight off anti-gens is reduces, therefore makes more likely to fall ill. * Stress response hormones effect the Immune System
Direct and Indirect Effects of Stress
* Direct Biological Effects
* Physical Change & Hormone Change
* Maladaptive Coping Behaviour
* Smoking and Drinking
* Emotionally Mediated Effects
* On Diet and Activity Level
Age and Gender Differences- Telephone Survey
* Women found to be more likely to report problems and being stresses than men (84% v 76%) * People under age of 65 more likely to report being stresses than older people (82% v 70%)
Increased risk of Disease and Infection
Life Changes and Daily Hassel’s
Life Change: Experiences in our life that require significant readjustment (MARRIAGE) Daily Hassel: Minor Events out of day to day living (HOUSEWORK) Social Readjustment Rating Scale
* Some of the events should be reconsidered
* It can be too opinionated
* People deal with stress in different ways.
* Stress Levels are different for all people.
* Marriage may be stressful for some in particular cultures, whereas in other cultures they are not stressful Hassles and Uplifts Scale
* Lazarus 1981
* Take into account ‘uplifting’ effect of positive daily events on negative daily hassle’s when measuring stress levels Hassles and Uplifts - Gervais 2005
* Found that when nurses kept a diary, recording daily hassles and uplifts also recording rate of performances showed that uplifts...