Chapter 1 Study Guide
1. What is psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. 2. Who was William Wudnt and which approach is he associated with? Father of psychology; Structuralism. 3. What is the focus of the biological approach?
Brain and Nervous System.
4. According to the behavioral approach, what controls human behavior? External environment forces.
5. The founder of the psychodynamic model is Sigmund Freud and the main focus of this approach is what? Unconscious 6. What characteristics are emphasized in the humanistic approach? Self-fulfillment, altruism, and personal growth. 7. The cognitive approach tries to understand how individuals do what? Direct attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems. 8. Evolutionary psychology deals with what aspects of human life or behavior? Adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection. 9. The sociocultural approach compares behavior between who or what? Ethnic and cultural groups within countries. 10. What are the steps (in order) for the scientific method? Observe Phenomenon, Form Hypothesis, Research, Draw Conclusions, & evaluate Conclusions. 11. Describe the different types of descriptive research and what they entail including observation, surveys, interviews, and case studies. Case Studies*** 12. Know what positive and negative correlations are. In POSITIVE CORRELATIONS, as one variable moves, the second variable moves in the same direction. So as one increases, the other also increases and vice versa; In NEGATIVE CORRELATIONS, as one variable moves, the other variable goes in the opposite direction. So as one increases the other decreases, or vice versa. 13. Experimental research is used to determine what? Determining whether causal relationship exists between variables. 14. Know what independent and dependent variables are and be able to identify them if given an example. Independent variables are manipulated...