Psychology Test Notes

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  • Topic: Nervous system, Neuron, Psychology
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Psychology Test 1
Chapters 1, 2, & 4

Chapter 1
Psychology – the scientific study of behavior & mental process
Goals of Psychology:
1. Describe
2. PredictHuman behavior & mental process
3. Explain
4. Help change and improve the lives of people

Subfields:
Behavioral neuroscience – examines biological basis of behavior and hoe it determines behavior
Brain & nervous system
Developmental Psychology – examines how people grow & change from the birth to death Clinical psychology – deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders

Psychiatrists – physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders Psychologist – employed in a variety of places, concentrate on improving lives of people

Wilhelm Wundt 1st experimental lab devoted to psychological experiment Structuralism – focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of perception, consciousness, thinking, emotions and other kinds of mental states and activities Introspection – procedure that presents people with a stimulus and asked to describe what they experience These were used to better understand the structure of the mind

Gestalt psychology – emphasizes how perception is organized
Study how people consider individual elements together as units or wholes
“The whole is different from the sum of its parts.”
Behavioral psychology
Behavioral perspective - the approach that suggests that observable, measurable behavior should be the focus of study championed by Skinner
Watson was 1st major American psychologist to advocate behavioral approach
“Give me a dozen healthy infants…train him to become any type of specialist.”

Components of the Scientific Method – the approach used by psychologist to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest 1) Identifying questions of interest

2) Formulating an explanation
3) Carrying out research designed to support of refute the explanation 4) Communicating the findings
Hypothesis – a prediction, stemming from a theory,
stated in a way that allows it to be testedoperational definition * Cannot say 1 thing causes another until it is put through an experiment

Descriptive research methods:
1) Archival – existing data are examined to test a hypothesis inexpensive incorrect form, incomplete 2) Naturalistic observation – investigator observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation have no controls of the factors of interest 3) Case study – an in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people focuses on one person so cannot generalize the information 4) Survey method – sample of people chosen to represent a larger group of interest is asked a series of questions straightforward results may have little meaning

Correlational research: when 2 sets of variables are examined to determine whether they are associated or “correlated” Positive – indicates that as the value of one variable increases, we can predict that the value of the other variable will also increase further from 0 higher correlation Negative – tells us that as the value of one variable increases, the value of another decreases Correlation coefficient – represents strength and direction of the relationship between 2 variables -1 - +1

Experimental method:
Independent variable – the variable that is manipulated by an experiment Dependent variable – the variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable Significant outcome – meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses

Chapter 2
Neurons: nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system
Dendrite – a cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons
Axon – the part...
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