Psychology - Research Methods Notes

Topics: Validity, Psychometrics Pages: 8 (1906 words) Published: March 11, 2013
1)What is the most important part of a research paper? Why? a.Method Section (if you wish to replicate this the part that you will need to ensure that all of the same procedures are followed, if don’t correctly and results return the same it means that the research and conclusions are reliable) b.Careful analysis of the “method” section involves thinking about i.Reliability = consistency of measures used to gather data on behaviour/mental process of interest ii.Validity = accuracy of outcomes and involves 2 aspects

1.A) external validity
2.B) internal validity
a.“goodness of the measure”
b.“goodness of the procedure”

2)What is reliability and why is it important?
a.Refers to the consistency or stability of a measurement that is used to gather info on any behaviour or mental process b.How is reliability determined?
i.This is the responsibility of
1.1) any researchers who develops / creates a new measure
2.2) the choice a researcher makes when selecting an existing measure •Primarily based on the outcome of a statistic called ‘correlation’ which measures how 2 variable are connected or related to each other •Correlation coefficient calculated:

or = +/- 0.00 – 1.00 (minimum of .85 in order to be accepted) ocan be calculated using test-retest scores, parallel/alternate forms, spilt-half scores, Cronbach’s alpha, and ‘inter-rated’ or ‘inter-observer’ scores -When evaluating research you look to see if the researcher used a well-established existing measure that has known reliability OR there is reposted information about the measurements reliability in the method section

3)What is validity and why is it important? What is external, internal, face, convergent, content, and discriminant validity? i.Validity = accuracy of outcomes and involves 2 aspects
1. A) external validity
a.The extent to which the results of the study can be applied beyond the sample studied b.Problems with external validity
i.Certain kinds of people will only apply for certain kinds of studies ii.Convince samples of poll certain kind of group
iii.In these cases it may not be safe to pull results back to POI c.Solutions
i.Systematic (every nth person, cannot be bias on approach) ii.Random (very hard to obtain)
2. B) internal validity – “goodness of the measure”
a.“goodness of the measure”
i.A measure represents the way the researcher will gather info about some `variables` of interest – behavior and or mental process (e.g. moral reasoning, stress, self esteem …) ii.The variable must be defined in terms of the specific method that is used to measure it (operation definitions). This is important so that replication can be done in the future, and falsifiable to show the info is valid. ii.Types of measurement validity

a.1) Face validity
i.Questions measure what it appears they are trying to measure ii.What you see is what you get
iii.Ok to have if it is not a provocative measure
iv.People can customize their answers to what they believe is wanted b.2) Content validity
i.sampling the domain well in the desired field
c.3) Construct Validity
i.Convergent validity
1.Similar to other measures that measure that domain
ii.Discriminant validity
1.Your measure is different from other measures
2.Can be measuring something that is opposite but in the same domain iii.What to look for in evaluation-
1.Good =
a. Researcher describes method used
b. Measure is reliable and valid measure of the variable of - interest c. A larger sample of POI used
2.Bad =
a. Created on measure without evidence that supports its - - validity OR uses pop psyc measure b. Sample was small and not representative if the POI
d.“goodness of the procedure”
i.Refers to how well the researchers is able to rule out error or some other explanation for the findings (not just an issue with “experimental” design iii.Some common threats to internal...
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