Psychology Perspectives

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Unit 8 – Psychological Perspective for health and social care| P1&M1 Understand Psychological Approaches|
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Contents Page
Behaviourist Perspective: Pages 3-4
The Psychodynamic approach: Pages 5-6
The Humanistic perspective: Page 7
The cognitive/information processing perspective: Page 8
The biological perspective: Page 9-10
M1 Criteria: Page 11-12
Reference Page: Page 13

Introduction
This behaviourist perspective is that we can understand any type of behaviour by looking at what the person has learned.Pesonality traits for example shyness, confidence, and optimism. Pavlov (CLASSICAL CONDITIONING)

Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist working with dogs to investigate their digestive systems. The dogs tested where attached to harness, and Pavlov attached monitor to their stomachs and mouths so he could measure the rate of salvation. He noticed when the laboratory assistant came in with the food before the dog had actually tasted the food the dog began to salivate. Pavlov speculated that the dog salivating because it had learned to associate the laboratory assistant with the food. This is when his theory began. Food automatically led to the response of salivation. Since salivation is an automatic response, he called this unconditioned response. This means a response that regularly occurs when an unconditioned stimulus is presented. As the food automatically leads to this response, he called this an unconditioned stimulus; this means a stimulus that regularly and consistently leads to an automatic (not learned) response. Pavlov then presented food at the same time as the bell; too see if the dog would learn to associate the bell with food. After many goes the dog learned that the bell associated with food and began to salivate when only the bell rung and no food was presented. This is called conditioned response; this means a new, learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that mimics the response to unconditioned stimulus, it had learned the conditioned response of salivation to the conditioned stimulus (the bell). Conditioned stimulus means a neutral stimulus that, when paired with the unconditioned stimulus, produces a conditioned (learned) response, just as the unconditioned response used to. Skinner (OPERANT CONDITIONING)

Burrhus Frederic Skinner, an American psychologist who worked mostly with rats and pigeons, to discover some of the key principles of learning new behaviours. He used a famous device, called a Skinner box. The box contained a leaver which, when pressed, released a food pellet into the box, this reinforcing lever-pressing behaviour. At first when he rat is in the box it will be running around sniffing his new surroundings, which at some point it, will press the leaver, releasing a food pellet. After a while when the rat has repeatedly performed this action, it will learn that this behaviour (pressing the leaver) I automatically followed by the release of a food pellet (the consequence).As the pellet is experienced as reinforcing (something that the rat would like to have more of), you called this positive reinforcement, this is happens when the consequence following a particular is experienced as desirable. Skinner then used a negative reinforcement which is when behaviour results in a consequence that removes something unpleasant. The negative reinforcement he used was a very low electrical current on the floor of the Skinner box. The current could be de-activated if the rat pressed the lever. Social learning theory

Role models are very important. We can learn new behaviour from anyone but we imitate behaviour if we are strongly influenced by the way we perceive the person. We can be influenced by others when we observe someone who we admire behaving in a particular way; we are more likely to imitate such behaviour. Solomon Asch, social psychologist conducted experiments to show how an individual’s behaviour could be influenced and changed because they did not want...
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