Psychology of Reading

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Role of Speech in Reading
•In earlier days, people would not have questioned that talking in inherently linked to reading - silent reading was rare:

•St. Augustine in his "Confessions"
–remarks about monk Ambrose to reading without obvious speech –"But while reading, his eyes glanced over the pages, and his heart searched out the sense, but his voice and tongue were silent. Role of Speech in Reading

•Practical importance of this issue -
–How do we teach reading
•phonics method emphasizes grapheme/phoneme conversions
•whole-word method- emphasizes direct connection between the written word as a patttern and its meaning –How do we teach the deaf reader
–How do we deal with dialect mismatch
Why Propose Speech Process in Reading
•Do you hear your voice or others during reading?
•Recording electrical impulses on skin that lies directly over speech muscles (electromyography or EMG) –while reading, these muscles are activated!
–Hardyck and Petrinovich ‘70 study
•Used biofeedback to reduce EMG activity in larynx (Adam's apple) •suppressed EMG activity led to poorer comprehension of difficult material, but not easy material. Why? Levels of Speech Representation

•Phonetic Level
–Represented by "Phones" - universal
set of speech sounds. Eg., sounds of the letter ‘t' in Table, little, cat. Subtle differences that we can not readily recognize in the sounds for ‘t' - thus separate phones needed. –Phonological level represented by ‘phonemes'.- speech sounds that we can actual recognize. So the ‘t' sound is represented among all sounds for the ‘t' sound. Overhead162 Levels of Speech Representation

•Syllable - smallest segments of speech that can be articulated independently. Usually contains a vowel and a consonant.

Evidence for Speech Coding
•Conrad's effect: harder to memorize similar sounding letters, than different sounding letters. –B,v,t,z,v,z harder to remember than s, t, n, w, q

•Using the speech code is automatic, even in languages without a phonologically based script. –Tzeng, Hung, and Wang (1977) – Chinese ideographs become confused in memory if they sound similar!

Evidence for Speech Coding
•Lexical decision task:
–speed with which we identify if presentation is a word
–Illegal and nonpronouncable nonwords faster to identify (likj, sagm) –Slower when nonwords were legal and pronounceable (strig, barp). –Even slower when nonword homophones presented (e.g., trate, tew). –Suggests that printed word is translated into some form of speech and then lexicon is consulted. •So not a direct route from word to meaning without speech overhead167

Evidence for Speech Coding
•Forced choice - Hawkins, Reicher, Rogers, & Peterson, 1976 –Subject presented very briefly a word such as ‘coin". Then subject presented word pairs such as join-coin. –Person indicates which word was presented first - coin or join. •Person must decide among alternatives (i.e., forced choice) –What if subject is presented ‘cent' real fast, and then is presented cent-sent. Should that be harder than cent-lent. Why?

Evidence for Speech Coding
•Regularity effect: faster to name regular words than irregular words –Regular words- can be read via the grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence rules, such are ‘mode', ‘stop'. –Irregular words- can not apply GPC rules. E.g., deaf

–For irregular words there is a conflict between the GPC pronunciation and the correct pronunciation (e.g., ‘deaf' being read like ‘ leaf')

Speech for Short-Term Memory
–Phonetic – the specific sounds that we can not necessarily perceive, such as the p sound in poke and spoke. –Phonological – more abstract representation of sounds that we can perceive. The p phoneme is why we perceive similar p sound in poke and spoke. •After lexical access, keeping speech based representations in working memory is very useful: –One reason is that sentences often have large distances between related words –...
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