The _____________ perspective views people as if they are machines. Mechanistic. From the mechanistic perspective, people are viewed as reacting automatically to physical forces, as behaving in predictable ways, and as being a sum of their parts.
The ____________ perspective views people as developing, maturing, and changing over time. Organismic. From the organismic perspective, people are seen as maturing and changing as they progress through set development patterns.
A pattern of behavior associated with a certain period in development is known as a _______. Stage. A stage refers to a set of behaviors associated with a certain period of a person's development. For example, in Freud's theory of psychosexual stages the oral stage occurs from birth to 12 or 18 months. This stage is characterized by mouth-oriented behaviors including sucking and eating.
If a psychologist views people as being affected by their past and as affecting their future, the psychologist has a _____________ perspective. Contextual. The contextual perspective views people's behavior as occurring in context, where context is created from the past and creates the future. From this perspective, there is a strong emphasis on how people are affected by their environment and how people change their environment.
Events that most people experience in a similar way are known as ___________. Normative. An event is normative if it occurs in a similar way for most people. Examples of normative events include puberty and menopause.
A normative __________-________ influence is an event that people experience at the same time. History-graded. A normative history-graded influence is an event or experience that occurs at the same time for a lot of people. Examples of normative history-graded influences include the depression in the 1930s, the technological innovations of the 1990s, or the changing role and status of women in the 1920s.
A group of people who share the same experience is known as a __________. Cohort. A cohort is a group of people who share the same experience or a similar experience. Normative history-graded influences affect a particular cohort.
Winning the lottery, being involved in an accident, and losing a parent at a young age are all examples of _______________ events. Nonnormative. Nonnormative events are rare events that most people do not experience. They can include atypical experiences such as winning the lottery or being in an accident. They can also include typical events occurring at an unusual age such as losing a parent at a young age. The number of years that a person has lived is his or her ____________ age. Chronological. Chronological age is a measure of age based on how long a person has lived or how many years have passed since their birth. This is the age most people are referring to when they speak of a person's "age".
____________ age measures how far a person has progressed along his or her potential lifespan. Biological. Biological age is measured by a person's physical condition and shows how far a person has progressed along his or her potential lifespan. Lifestyle, diet, and internal and external influences can result in a person being biologically younger or older than their actual chronological age.
_____________ age measures how well people are able to adapt to a changing environment. Psychological. Psychological age is a measure of a person's ability to cope with change and adapt to changes in the environment.
Two adults are aged 70. One feels young and functions well. The other feels old and finds it difficult to function and adapt to change. The two adults have a different ____________ age. Functional. Functional age is a measure of how well a person functions physically and socially as compared to other people of the same chronological age.
__________ age is a measure of how well people's behavior match the norms associated with their age....