Aggression is a complex phenomenon influenced by genetic and psychosocial factors. The topics of aggression have been argued by many psychologists with different perspectives. Aggression can be described as a verbal or physical attack or even an insult such as threats, or sarcasm. Aggression can be broken down into two types, hostile and instrumental. Hostile aggression develops from feelings of anger hence; the intention is to inflict pain, for instance, someone deliberately hitting another with a baseball bat. While instrumental aggression is an act caused by an accident, therefore the intention was not to cause harm. For instance, kids playing football can accidently inflict pain through tackling, it was not premeditated. The essay will commence by highlighting different forms of aggression by means of outlining two approaches namely Biological and Behaviourism. Examples of experiments and case studies will be used to illustrate both theories, whilst reflecting the controversial nature verse nurture debate. The essay will then conclude by discussing similarities, differences as well as strengths and weaknesses of the two perspectives. Here I talked a little about aggression in society
Society today is dominated by violence and aggression. Domestic violence and slaying of innocent citizens are among the most aired through media, similarly, trusted animals being eradicated because of their aggressive attacks on their owners. This augment in aggression has prompted psychologists around the globe to experiment using various scientific studies of the brain and observable behaviour to determine the cause for aggression. Thus, this essay will take a more in depth look into two of the main psychological study areas of aggression through Biological and Behaviourism. Here I introduced the Biological Approach
Biological Psychologists believe behaviour such as aggression is inherited and has an evolutionary function. Humans have inherited a fighting instinct which is originated in animals, because of the occurrence of evolution. Studies have shown our genes affect our behaviour and factors such as chromosomes, hormones and the brain all have a significant influence on human behaviour Key features in the Biological approach are adaptation, theory of evolution, reductionist, instincts and heredity. Subsequently, methodologies used to establish the theories are done through laboratory experiments, correlation, naturalistic observation, ethical consideration, reliability and twin studies. It is the assumptions of the Bio psychologist that psychology should be seen as scientific therefore, behaviour should be explained in terms of biology. In addition, they assume most behaviour will have an adaptive/evolutionary purpose because humans’ genes have evolved over millions of years. Here I introduced Behaviourist approach
Contrastingly, Behaviourist psychology, also known as behaviourism, assumes that all behaviours are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment; therefore, behaviour is leant through social interactions, vicarious learning, observations, modelling and reinforcement. Consequently, key features of this approach include Classical and Operant conditioning, stimulus-response, reductionism, objective measurement, social learning theory and reinforcement and punishment. Methodology used to study behaviour in a systematic approach is done through data gathering by observable manner, laboratory experiments, Little Albert, Bandura’s Bobo doll and ethical consideration. According to (Locke, john) when we were born our mind is a ‘tabula rasa’ a blank state therefore our minds are conditioned through socializing and observation. Here I look at Behaviourist approach to Aggression giving an experiment Behaviourist psychologist Bandura states people learn to express anger by imitating behaviour from their role models or media influences. He was able to demonstrate this by...
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