Chapter 1 - Portal Questions
What is psychology? What makes it scientific?
The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. The use of systematic methods to observe the natural world including human behavior. How is critical thinking used in the study of psychology?
The process of thinking deeply and actively asking questions and evaluating evidence. Who was Wilhelm Wundt and what was his approach to psychology? Wilhelm put the pieces of the philosophy – natural science together to create academic discipline of psychology. Structionalism – Wundt and his collaborators concentrated on discovering the basic elements, or "structures," of mental processes. Who was William James, what was his approach?
William believed in functionalism. the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the environment and social interactions. Wundt looked inside the mind searching for its structures while functionalists focused on what was going on in human interactions with the outside world and trying to understand the purpose of thoughts. Seven approaches to psychology:
1. Cognitive Approach-emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems 2. Evolutionary Approach- uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and the concept of the survival of the fittest as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors 3. Sociocultural Approach- examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior 4. Biological Approach- emphasizes the study of the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. 5. Behavioral Approach- the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants. 6. Humanistic Approach-emphasizes a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose one's destiny. 7. Psychodynamic approach-emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between...
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