To Sleep, Do Doubt To Dream
The phenomenon of sleeping, as well as dreaming, has been an area of interest to psychology for many years. One scientist that took an interest in the study of sleep and dreaming was Eugene Aserinsky. During an early experiment of his, Aserinsky observed periods of active eye movements that he theorized might be associated with dreaming. He conducted a study to test his theory, using adults whose eye muscles were connected to electrodes while they slept. During periods of eye activity and little/no eye activity, the subjects were awakened and interrogated to determine if they were dreaming. Through this experiment, Aserinsky discovered REM sleep, or dreaming sleep, which in turn, prompted the experiments and theories of another scientist named William Dement.
Dement was interested in the basic function and significance of dreaming. What struck him as the most significant, however, was the discovery that dreaming occurs every night in everyone. Dement wondered if dreaming is in some way a necessary and vital part of our existence. To answer his many questions, he conducted an experiment that was in many ways similar to that of Aserinsky’s. However, Dement went a step farther, depriving his subjects of REM sleep and observing the results. After phases of deprivation and recovery, Dement concluded that when we are not allowed to dream, there is a pressure to dream that increases during deprivation. This process came to be known as the REM rebound effect.
Little Emotional Albert
Where does emotion come from? At the beginning of the twentieth century, Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical view of human behavior, which was based on the idea that we are motivated by unconscious instincts and repressed conflicts from early childhood, was the most popular explanation for emotion. However, a new psychology known a behaviorism started to overtake Freud’s views in the 1920’s. Behaviorists believed that behavior is generated outside the person...
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