This essay is going to be comparing and contrasting the theories of Piaget and Freud in the human development, particularly in the area of nature and nurture. This will look into their theories and the vital roles they play in human development. It will also be looking into different stages of human psychological development from the theories of Jean Piaget and Sigmund Freud Jean Piaget was born in Neuchâtel Switzerland august 1896 – September 1980,he studied natural sciences at the university of Neuchâtel and went on to become a psychologist. Piaget was a psychologist who carried out his research and observations on his own three children as well as studying their different stages of development right from infant. “As infants grow physically they also grow mentally, the first indicators of an infants cognitive development are his or her preference for novelty”(Robert, 2001,p338). The apparent preference for novelty is associated with the moderate discrepancy hypothesis. According to Piaget ‘s theory “cognitive development comes right from the inside out, all the way through maturation”(Robert, 2001,p347). Piaget claims that the function of cognitive development in general and intelligence is to assist adaptation to the environment (Robert, 2001,p340) According to Piaget, human development occurs in different stages which develops thought equilibration; equilibration is an approach of cognitive development where children look for a way to balance the information and experience they come across in their environment (Robert, 2001,p340) Piaget theory suggests that our environment can either promote or obstruct development; Piaget also believed that the environment could determine a child development. He further more looked into the study of cognitive and language development, stating that a child starts to develop at the same level as every other child developing on other skills through stages, however every developmental stages have to be complete before they move to another stage (Bee and Boyd, 2007,p15)
Parts of Piaget’s studies are largely based on the cognitive development. The cognitive development looks more into the mental development, such as memory. According to Piaget infants are capable of greater feats of memory hints (Helen and Denise, 2010,p148). Piaget’s theory also takes account that human developments are inborn, but does depend on the environment around us thereby suggesting that the development process can be affected by nature and nurture (Bee, 2006,p153). Piaget divided his works into three fundamental stages: primary one being schemas which simply is the manner in which individuals deal with their mental and physical development, thereby allowing them to absorb or acquire new knowledge to the schemas. Equilibration involves a balance between what environment offers in an encounter. Equilibration involves two process assimilation and accommodation Assimilation= is the process of trying to restore cognitive equilibrium by incorporating new information into existing schemes. An Example of this by piaget is that of a very young child seeing a cat for the very first time might call it “doggie” thinking all animals are “ doggie ” but where as new information will not fit into existing schemas, then the child has to modify the existing schemas through accommodation which can be the process of responding to cognitively disequilibrating information, this information about the environment by modifying relevant schemas (Robert, 2001,p340). Piaget has developed widely accepted stages of cognitive development According to Piaget children go through different stages of development at different stage of their lives. The first stage is the sensory motor stage, which is from birth to 2years of age. At this stage the infant will display a complete practical, perceiving and doing action, during this stage the infant will expand their reflexes and their mental demonstrations of things that they do not sense (Helen and...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document