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  • Topic: Psychology, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation
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Psychology Reviewer

I. Learning and Thinking

Learning – a process by which brings about a change in the individual’s way of responding as a result of practice or other experiences.

Types of Learning

1. Classical Conditioning –simplest form of learning. Ivan Pavlov

CS-UCS-UCR-CS-CR (example ung sa dog at ung meat)

Unconditioned Stimulus – Stimulus which is adequate at the outset of training to produce the response in question

Conditioned stimulus – initially adequate to evoke the response in question but will do so if paired with the unconditioned stimulus

Conditioned response – learned response

Discrimination – eliciting different responses to two different stimuli

Extinction – organism’s repertoire of behavior

2. Instrumental Conditioning/Operant Conditioning – a selection from many responses of the one that habitually will be given in a stimulus situation. E.L. Thorndike & B.F. Skinner

• Primary reward conditioning

• Escape conditioning

• Avoidance conditioning

• Secondary reward conditioning

Reinforcement – Stimulus that will maintain or increase the strength of a response

3. Insightful Learning/Perpetual Learning - Wolfgang Kohler

• Sign learning

• Programmed Learning

• Learning to Learn

4. Multiple – Response Learning

• Associative Learning – Habit formation

5. Other types

• Rational Learning

• Motor Learning

• Associational Learning

• Appreciation Learning

Remembering and Forgetting

Reintegrative Memory – recollection of a personal experience or event.

Recognition – remembering only a sense of familiarity

Recall - a reinstatement of something learned in the past

Saving in relearning – is a way of finding out the influence of prior learning

Explanations of forgetting

• Passive decay through disuse

• Systematic distortions of the memory trace

• Interference effects

• Motivated forgetting

Retroactive inhibition – new learning interfering with prior ones

Proactive inhibition – prior learning interfering with learning and recall of new materials

Improvement in retention

• Correct performance

• Spacing learning

• Distributed practice

• Recall

• Teaching aids

• Branching programs

Thinking – type of behaviour that uses symbols as inner representations of objects and events.

• Directed thinking – has an aim, goal or end point

• Creative thinking – attempts to discover new relationships achieve new solutions to problems, invent new methods or devices and produce new artistic forms.

Thinking process

A. Presence of a problem

B. Definition of a problem

C. Weighing of relevance or probabilities

D. Verification

Theories differing functions of the brain

A. Peripheralists - hold that all thinking goes on in muscular movement and all that psychology requires is a stimulus – response analysis of thinking.

B. Centralists – hold that thinking goes on inside the brain and nervous system, and muscular movements merely accompany the central process.

Problem Solving

a) Habitual set – tendency to persist in applying a solution that was once efficient but is no longer applicable

b) Functional fixedness – the inability to see alternative uses for a tool or object whose familiar use for a tool or object whose familiar use-meaning has become fixed.

• Preparation

• Incubation and illumination

• Verifications

Higher of mental process

• Autistic thinking

• Dreaming

II. Drives and Motivations

Biological Drives

• Hunger

• Thirst

• Air Hunger

• Warmth and cold

• Pain

• Rest and sleep drives

• Sleep drive

• Sex motive

Psychosocial Motives

• Affiliation

• Dependency

• Social Approval

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