1. Compare experimental and co relational methods. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Show by an example how both methods could be used to investigate the same problem.
Co relational method is a scientific procedure that is used to look for relationships
between variables. On the other hand, experimental method is a scientific technique that
involves a sequence of procedures which include observation, identification of a problem,
hypothesis formulation, experimentation, analysis of data, and then the outcome or result
that involves acceptance, rejection, or modification of a hypothesis. One of the
disadvantages of co relational method is that finding a correlation does not prove that one
variable causes a change in another variable. In other words, correlation does not equal
causation. While, the advantage of experimental method is that it is a study of cause and
effect, it involves the deliberate manipulation of one variable, while trying to keep all
other variables constant. One of the advantages of correlation method is that we can use
this method in a natural setting, whereas, since most experiments are conducted in
laboratories, therefore it should be difficult to generalise findings from experiments
because they are not true to real life. Moreover, there are very many areas of human life
which cannot be studied using the experimental method because it would be simply too
unethical to do so.
There are three possible results of a co relational study; a positive correlation, a negative
correlation, and no correlation. Positive correlations could be found when either variables
increase or decrease at the same time. Whereas, negative correlations indicates that as the
amount of one variable increases, the other decreases or vice versa. While, no
correlation refers to a condition when there is no relationship between the two variables.
On the other hand, in an experimental method, independent variable is a manipulated
variable in an experiment whose presence or degree determines the change in the
behaviour of the participant or dependant variable. A dependant variable is an observed
variable in an experiment whose changes are determined by the presence or degree of one
or more independent variables. There is another important variable which is often
involved in an experimental method, and that is, confounding variable. The confounding
variable can be defined as any variable other than the independent variable that could
cause a change in the dependent variable. Thus, confounding is a major threat to the
validity of inferences made about cause and effect.
Another advantage of co relational method is that we can study and measure the
relationships between two or more variables. On the other hand, in an experiment, we
need to control all extraneous or confounding variables, to make sure nothing is
influencing our dependent variable except the one or more variables are manipulating.
An example which shows both methods would be one’s self esteem and the feedback of
others. In creational method both variables would be correlated, although we have to find
out whether they are positively correlated or negatively correlated. In experimental
method, we would be able to find out the cause and effect of the relationship between
one’s self esteem and the feedback of others.
2. What advice would you give to prospective parents on preventing SIDS?
SIDS refers to sudden infant death syndrome. It is an unexpected death of an infant, who
suddenly stops breathing. SIDS occurs when the infant is usually less than one year of
age. Although the actual causes of SIDS are unknown, it is seen and observed that...