Psychology

Topics: Classical conditioning, Behaviorism, Operant conditioning Pages: 5 (1597 words) Published: March 30, 2014
Section One – 1
When psychology first began to become a science in 1860, it was more of a field of philosophy than an actual medical study. It dealt with a more abstract concept than other medical fields; the human body is something concrete that you can physically look at and study whereas, at the time, you could not physically see the mind.

In Ancient Greece thinkers such as Aristotle and Plato could only come up with theories as to how the mind works. Plato believed that some knowledge is innate while Aristotle believed that the ability to learn depended on experience, however neither were able to prove their theories with concrete evidence. As time went on and psychology became more widely known, more theoretical approaches to psychology were introduced. Freud established the psychoanalytical theory, which emphasized the importance of the unconscious and how it shaped how humans behave. While Freud did use psychoanalysis to attempt to bring unconscious thoughts and feelings to conscious awareness, it was still far from valid scientific evidence.

In the 20th century, behaviorism was introduced. Behaviorism encouraged psychologists should limit their studies to behavior that was objectively observable. The introduction of behaviorism advanced psychology as a field of scientific study because it now focused on what people do rather than their own personal experiences. Studying behavior rather than gave objective and replicable information that could be accessed by other psychologists; studying experiences gave information that was too subjective. While behaviorism did greatly advance psychology, it still lacked explanation for some questions that fascinated psychologists. While behaviorism didn’t answer all the questions, it still greatly propelled psychology forward and helped it make great advances as a science and paved the way for future approaches to psychology. Section Two – 5

If one were to test to see if “Trimjeans” really helps assist in weight loss, you would need two groups; a control group and an experimental group. The control group, which is a group that is not treated in a particular way, would be given a placebo. The experimental group, or the group that is treated in a particular way, would be given the actual Trimjeans medication. The purpose of having both an experimental group and a control group is to determine if Trimjeans actually does help people lose weight or if it is just a placebo effect. The independent variable of this experiment would be the whether or not the people taking part of this experiment received the placebo or the actual Trimjeans medication. The dependent variable would be if the people lost weight or not. Section Three – 7

Both Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area deal with language and speech, however they are very different. Broca’s area controls the capacity to produce spoken language while Wernicke’s area deals with the ability to produce speech. A patient with damage to Broca’s area would have difficulty forming words, they would likely have slurred or slowed speech or a speech impediment and it’s also possible that they would have difficulty comprehending language. Damgae to Wernicke’s area would result in the ability to speak, but the inability to form coherent sentences. A patient suffering from damage to Wernicke’s area would be able to speak proper words, but would not have the ability to put them into sentences that made sense. Section Four – 9

This is an example of classical conditioning. The little girl’s brother yelling was the unconditioned stimulus (US) which frightened her which was the unconditioned response (UR). Once her brother yelled in her ear when she first saw the tarantula, it caused her to be frightened thus making the spider the conditioned stimulus (CS). Now whenever she sees a spider she will be frightened as a conditioned response (CR). However, it is possible that she might not always be scared of spiders because her...
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