Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Human behavior, Behavior Pages: 7 (1988 words) Published: January 27, 2014
Psychology

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. A lot of persons mix psychology with psychiatry. Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. So, the difference between these two is that psychology is nothing about medicine. It involves some science, yes, but just for research. The definition of the name:

Like a lot of words from our vocabulary, it has origins from Latin. It is the combination of two terms - study (ology) and soul (psyche), or mind, so it gives the clear and obvious meaning of “ The study of the soul or mind “. Though, this meaning has been altered over the years until today, this is not what the word means at all. The subject of psychology, as studied in colleges and universities, currently has very little to do with the mind, and absolutely nothing to do with the soul or spirit.

During the History, there have been a few very known psychologists. Making a Top 10 I managed to find these men and for what they are still so famous : 1. Ivan Pavlov - Practically everyone has heard of Pavlov’s dogs. Pavlov wasn’t technically a psychologist, but he made one of the most important discoveries in the field, and had a major hand in establishing psychology as an area of study. Pavlov is the one who recognized that responses to stimuli could be learned, based on his studies of dogs.

2. John B. Watson - When Pavlov jump-started the field of psychology by recognizing the role of learned responses, he also kicked off behaviourism. Watson was the first behaviourist, arguing that psychologists can only base their theories on observation, and utilizing the study of animals in order to draw conclusions regarding human behaviour.

3. B.F. Skinner - Another behaviourist, Skinner’s theories of operant conditioning and reinforcement have had a lasting impact on psychology. Any time you read or hear about the use of reward and punishment, you are seeing the effects of Skinner’s theories.

4. Sigmund Freud - What list of psychologists would be complete without Sigmund Freud’s name? Freud may be somewhat mocked today for his apparent preoccupation with sex, but his theories of psychoanalysis were extremely influential on the field. “A certain degree of neurosis is of inestimable value as a drive, especially to a psychologist. “

5. Carl Jung - Jung is another of the influential early psychologists. He worked with and was influenced by Freud, but eventually developed theories of his own. For instance, he rejected Freud’s focus on sex in favor of symbol and what he called the collective unconscious. His theories also led to the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous.

6. Anna Freud - Often the only Freud remembered is Sigmund Freud, but his daughter Anna was also a highly influential psychologist. She was a pioneer in child psychology, adapting her father’s theories of psychoanalysis for use with children, and recognizing the differences between children and adults.

7. Erik Erikson - Another pioneer in child psychology, Erik Erikson studied with Anna Freud and later went on to form his own theories about the development of identity throughout the lifespan — childhood, adulthood, and old age.

8. Jean Piaget - Like Erikson, Piaget theorized that children developed in stages. Whereas Erikson’s stages focused on identity, however, Piaget studied children’s cognitive abilities. He was one of the first psychologists to acknowledge that children think differently than adults, which makes his work ground-breaking and important, even today. “It is with children that we have the best chance of studying the development of logical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, physical knowledge, and so forth. “

9. Abraham Maslow - Maslow’s theories provided a sharp contrast to those of Watson, Skinner, and the other behaviourists. His emphasis on positive psychology resulted in...
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