Ways we are motivated, reasons for motivation
*Needs: states of cellular or bodily deficiency that compel drives. IE: Water, Food, Shelter, Oxygen. * Drives: Perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need. (Drives: Push and Pull)
* Incentive: any external object or event that motivates behavior.
The stress/performance relationship
Push and Pull: drives push us into action Incentives Pull
More stress better performance… until it’s too much stress
Know what homeostasis and set point
Homeostasis: the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium or balance around one optimal set point. Set Point: The Ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system, such as internal body temperature.
Think about the relationship between motivation and evolution: Evolutionary theory looks at internal drives to explain why people do what they do. Why people do what they do and what has caused them to do this. Drives and Wants.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
From bottom to top: Physiological needs, saftely and security needs, love and belongingness needs, esteem needs, self actualization. The Lower levels must be satisfied before we can focus on achieving self actualization; the full realization s on one’s potentials and abilities in life.
4 kinds of motivation
*Motive to eat
*Motive to drink
* Motive to interact with others
* Motive to engage in sex
(Hunger, Sex, Belong, Excel)
Models of motivation
*evolutionary Model: Looks at internal drives to explain why we do what we do. *drive reduction Model: when our psychological systems are out of balance/depleted we are driven to reduce this depleted state. *optimal arousal Model: higher arousal leads to optimal performance. *Hierarchical Model: pyramid of needs with the most important on bottom.
Three kinds of societies and their sexual attitudes
Restrictive Societies: restrict sex...