Psychology

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Quiz 2

Ch. 15: PP 467-70; 471-73; 474-77; and 480-83
Ch. 16: PP. 497-501; 505-510.

Chapter 15-Health Psychology
* Health psychology: a field that explores how biological, psychological, and social/environmental factors interact to influence physical health * Factors that affect health (they all interact with each other): * Biological factors (genetic makeup, age, gender) influence on our susceptibility to disease * Environmental factors (stress, culture)

* Psychological factors (smoking, eating fatty food)—we can engage in behaviors that enhance our health or worsen our health * Beginning of 20th century, the leading causes of death besides cardiovascular disease were infectious diseases, influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis * Improving medicine have reduced the death rate

* In 21st century, leading causes of death are influenced by psychological and social factors like smoking, diet, stress, cancer * Fight-or flight response: bodily changes like increased heart rate and elevated blood pressure prepare the body to either face the threat or flee from it * Takes place when the hypothalamus releases corticotropin, which signals the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, resulting in the release of a group of hormones, including cortisol * Mild stressors also trigger this

* Allostatic load: occur when a person cannot escape chronic stress—cannot fight for flee from it * Can be caused by persistent uncontrollable and unpredictable stress * Many factors (gender, minority status, SES status, culture) can affect our exposure to uncontrollable and unpredictable events * Psychological factors/general health (resilient=people not easily affected by stress) * Appraisals and Pessimism

* Pessimistic: seeing negative events as own faults * Causing chronic arousal, resulting in physiological damage * Higher blood pressure, poorer immune system
* Engage in unhealthy behaviors
* Develop mental illness
* Optimistic: positive, full of laugher personality * Coping strategies
* Avoidance coping: denying that you are ill or are facing other obvious stresses * Results in lower adherence to medical regiments, poorer health * Predicts the chronic disease progression

* In contrast, talking about negative emotions have positive effects on health * Better immune system
* Reduce the physiological strain associated w/ chronic negative emotions * Seeing social support
* People who seek and receive positive emotional support from others show more positive health outcomes * Gender differences in coping
* Women seek support more than men—have better health * Men have a smaller network of people they turn to for support * Major source of support is partner/spouse

* Married people have less physical illness
* A conflicting marriage brings elevated blood pressure, low immune system * Women can benefit physiologically from being in a relationship, but only if that is a positive one * Cultural differences in coping

* Asians tend to be more unwilling than Americans to reach out to others for social support b/c they are more concerned about potential harm to their relationships if they do so * Asians instead find ways to benefit from their social networks that don’t involve revealing personal concerns or weaknesses * They benefits better when using implicit form of seeking social support than explicit form * Psychological disorders and physical health

* People w/ psychological disorders have more physical health problems * There’s a link between depression and diseases
* People...
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