Psychology

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THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
– Unconscious motives are repressed
– Development is a conflictual process
• Sexual and aggressive instincts that must
be served, yet society dictates restraint

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Freud’s Psychosexual Theory

– Three Components of Personality
• Id: satisfy inborn biological instincts, now
• Ego: conscious, rational, finds a realistic
means of satisfying instincts
• Superego: seat of the conscience,
develops between ages 3-6 as morals of
parents are internalized

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
– Stages of Psychosexual Development
• Sex instinct, broadly defined, was most
important
• Focus of sex instinct shifts during
development – shifts = stages
• Fixation – arrested development due to
excess or a lack of gratification of needs





Table 2.1 Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
– Contributions and Criticisms
• Little evidence that oral, anal and genital
conflicts predict adult personality
• Contributions
– Unconscious motivation
– Impact of early experiences
– Emotional side of development

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Erickson’s Theory of Psychosocial
Development
– Comparing Erickson with Freud
• Children are active explorers, not passive
slaves to biological urges
• Emphasis on cultural influences, less on
sexual urges

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory
– Eight Life Crises (Psychosocial Stages)
• Emerge at a time dictated by biological
maturation and social demands
• Must be resolved successfully for
satisfactory resolution at next stage
• Extend throughout life





Table 2.2 Erickson’s and Freud’s Stages of Development





Table 2.2 Erickson’s and Freud’s Stages of Development (continued)

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory
– Contributions and Criticisms
• Stresses rational, adaptive nature
• Emphasizes social conflicts that we can
anticipate and observe in others
• Vague about causes of development
• Descriptive, not explanatory

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT

• Psychoanalytic Theory Today
– Largely rejected because propositions are
difficult to falsify or confirm
• Most hypotheses can only be tested
through interviews or the clinical method
– Time consuming
– Expensive
– Least objective

THE LEARNING VIEWPOINT

• Watson’s Behaviorism
– Conclusions based on observations of overt
behavior
– Development is continuous
– Habits develop from learning experiences
– Development depends on environment

THE LEARNING VIEWPOINT

• Skinner’s Operant Learning Theory
– Repeat acts if outcomes are favorable,
suppress acts if outcomes are unfavorable
• Operant – initial voluntary act
• Reinforcer – increases probability of act
• Punisher – decreases probability of act
– Development is passive
– Development depends on external stimuli

THE LEARNING VIEWPOINT

• Bandura’s Cognitive Social Learning Theory
– People are active information processors
– Observational learning – observing models
– Rejects Watson’s environmental
determinism – passive recipients
– Proposed reciprocal determinism –
interaction between person, behavior, and
the environment (bidirectional links)

• Bandura’s classic “Bobo Doll” Study
– Demonstrated importance of observational
learning
– Demonstrated no-trial learning
– Distinguished learning from performance





Figure 2.4. Bandura’s model of reciprocal determinism. ADAPTED FROM BANDURA, 1978.

THE LEARNING VIEWPOINT

• Contributions of Learning Theories
– Wealth of information
– Very precise and testable
– Clinical insights and practical applications
including behavior modification

THE LEARNING VIEWPOINT

• Criticisms of...
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