The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Development of psychology as a science
Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychology laboratory. Student of Wudnt's, E.B. Titchner named Wundt's approach structuralism. William James gave field an "American Stamp," invented functionalism Contemporary approaches to psychology
Biological Approach (focus on the body)
Behavioral Approach (behavioral responses and their environmental determinants)
Psychodynamic Approach (unconcious thought, early family experiences, etc)
Humanistic Approach (positive qualities, capacity for growth, freedom to choose destiny)
Cognitive Approach (mental processes involved in knowing how we direct our attention, how we perceive, how we remember, etc)
Evolutionary Approach (uses evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors)
Sociocultural Approach (examines the ways in which the social and cultural environments influence behavior.) CHAPTER TWO
What is psychology's scientific method?
Observe some phenominon, forumulating hypotheses and predictions, testing through empirical research, drawing conclusions, evaluating conclusions Research settings & Types of research
Laboratory and Naturalistic
Descriptive (Observation, Surveys and Interviews, Standardized Tests, Case studies)
Correlational (Positive and Negative Correlations... measured -1.00 to 1.00, closer to 1.00 either a positive or negative correlation is, the STRONGER, Correlation and Causation)
Analyzing and Interpretting Data
Descriptive statistics: Mathematical procedures that are used to describe and summarize sets of data in a meaningful way
Mean: Statistical measure of central tendency that is calculated by adding all the scores in a set and then dividing by the number of scores
Median: Statistical measure of central tendency that falls EXACTLY in the middle of a distribution of scores.
Mode: Statistical Measure of central tendency of the score that occurs MOST OFTEN in a set of data
Range: Statistical measure of variability that is the distance between the highest and lowest scores
Standard Deviation: Statistical measure of variability that involves how much the scores vary, on the average, around the mean of the sample. CHAPTER THREE
The Nervous System
The body's electrochemical communication circuitry, made up of billions of interconnected cells
Made up of Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) and Peripheral Nervous System (Somatic Nervous System...Voluntary.......Autonomic Nervous System (involuntary...Arousing and Calming) Parts of a Neuron
Glial Cells: Cells that provide support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system
Cell Body: The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
Dendrites: Branches of a neuron that receive and orient information toward the cell body, most neurons have numerous dendrites
Axon: Part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body to other cells
Myelin Sheath: The layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons. The myelin sheath speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses
Resting Potential: The stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron
Action Potential: The brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon during the transmission of a nerve impulse. How do neurons communicate with each other?
The neural impulse travels down the axon toward dendrites of the next neuron > In the terminal button, the impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap > At a receptor site on the dendrite of the receiving neuron, the neurotransmitter causes channels to open and creates an action potential Neurotransmitters and their functions...