•Trauma is an individual’s response to an emotionally distressing and unexpected event which overwhelms their capacity to manage. It can be a single event or enduring activity, which completely overwhelms the individual’s ability to manage the emotions associated with the experience. Traumatic events shatter an individual’s assumptions of trust, and shake the basis of their beliefs about safety. •Research has clearly demonstrated the link between severe abuse and traumatic responses in children. What are the signs of trauma?
•Traumatic experiences often involve a threat to life or safety, but any situation that leaves you feeling overwhelmed and alone can be traumatic, even if it doesn’t involve physical harm. •It’s not the objective facts that determine whether an event is traumatic, but your subjective emotional experience of the event. The more frightened and helpless you feel, the more likely you are to be traumatized. • A stressful event is most likely to be traumatic if:
•It happened unexpectedly.
•You were unprepared for it.
•You felt powerless to prevent it.
•It happened repeatedly.
•Someone was intentionally cruel.
It happened in childhood.
Child abuse is defined as "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm". The four main types of abuse are physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect. Neglect
Neglect is the instance in which the responsible adult fails to adequately provide for various needs, including physical (failure to provide adequate food clothing, or hygiene), emotional (failure to provide nurturing or affection) or educational (failure to enroll a child in school) Poverty
Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water, nutrition, health care, clothing and shelter. According to the World Health Organization, hunger and malnutrition are the single gravest threats to the world's public health and malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEPRIVATION
* The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual. * violence -The quality or state of being violent; highly excited action, whether physical or moral; vehemence; impetuosity; force. -The stress associated with violence exposed and the necessary coping with violence as an everyday event affect both the mothers ability to parent and child capacity to form healthy attachment relationship. IMPACT OF TRAUMA IN DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS
•Millions of children are affected by physical and sexual abuse, natural and technological disasters, transportation accidents, invasive medical procedures, exposure to community violence, violence in the home, assault, and terrorism. Unfortunately, the emotional impact of exposure to trauma on children is often unappreciated and therefore untreated, and yet the impact of exposures to disaster and violence is profound and long-lasting.(Lubit R et al 2003,. impact trauma children) Neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse have profound immediate and long-term effects on a child’s development. The long-term effects of abuse and neglect of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse, and a variety of severe relationship difficulties.( Child Abuse and Neglect: Effects on child development, brain development, and interpersonal relationships Arthur Becker-Weidman,2001. • A 2006 study found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms, while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence had a moderately strong...