Psychological Grit

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PSYCHOLOGICLAL GRIT Introduction

Grit can be defined as the perseverance of and passion for long term goals with two main factors to be considered: consistency of interests and perseverance of effort. (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews and Kelly., 2007) In our study we are examining psychological grit and how grit relates to personality, through examining neuroticism, conscientiousness and extroversion, also how grit relates to academic intelligence through vocabulary and problem solving tests. Duckworth et al. (2007) mention the results of (Gottfredson, 1997; Hartigan and Wigdor, 1989), that intelligence, or IQ is the best predictor for achievement. Academic achievement in particular is very strongly correlated with a high IQ, shown in College and school grade point averages.

It is predicted that grit will relate to conscientiousness with a significant correlation. This prediction arises due to findings of Duckworth et al. (2007) This correlation is expected to be stronger than neuroticism and extroversion, again as findings from Duckworth et al. (2007) indicate. Duckworth et al. (2007)’s findings also show significant correlation between academic intelligence and grit. Grit scores were associated with higher GPA’s. This association was even stronger when SAT scores were held constant. Interestingly though grit was not related to high school rank or SAT score. Finally grit and verbal IQ score were not found to be strongly correlated in Duckworth et al. (2007)’s findings. The aim of our study was to develop and asses the reliability and validity of a self report measure of psychological grit. We hypothesised that our report would be a reliable measure of grit. We predict that our report will also be a valid measure of grit. Our divergent validity prediction was that vocabulary will not have any correlation with grit. Convergent validity (strong correlations) were predicted for neuroticism and grit, that they will have a negative correlation. A positive correlation was predicted for extroversion and conscientiousness. Problem solving was also predicted to have a negative convergent validity to grit.

Method
Participants
The study contained 17 students from Macquarie University, enrolled in the subject PSY 245 (Principles of Psychological Assessment). These 17 students enrolled in the Tuesday 2-4 p.m., stream B tutorial and needed to be present in the first tutorial to partake in the study.

Materials
The group of 17 students developed a questionnaire to measure grit. The developers were split into small groups of 3 or 4. Each group produced two items to be considered for the grit measure test. One question related to “Consistency of Interests” and the other “Perseverance of Effort”. A scale of extremely inaccurate to extremely accurate was applied to each question. Each group presented their questions. They were discussed and changed to be made appropriate for the measure. Questions were also identified as positively or negatively scored. A personality questionnaire was used. It contained a list of personality traits. The student was asked to compare themselves to other people of roughly the same age and gender in regards to these traits, fitting on a scale of extremely inaccurate to extremely accurate (1-5 respectively). Multiple choice vocabulary and problem solving questionnaires were presented to test academic intelligence.

Procedure
The students firstly signed the ethics agreement to complete in the study. The students then completed the steps to develop the grit questionnaire. Each student completed each question on the Grit questionnaire, selecting a number from 1-5, which most accurately depicts their current situation to the question, where 1 equals extremely inaccurate and 5 extremely accurate. After the grit questionnaire, students were allocated time to complete the personality, vocabulary and problem solving tests. The scores for the...
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