Psychological and Scholastic Effects in Adolescent Victims of Ethnic Cleansing

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Abstract
The psychological and scholastic effects in adolescent victims of ethnic cleansing will be explored longitudinally over a period of 10 years. Twenty adolescent refugees between the ages of 5 and 18 who experienced a mass genocide, will be recruited to participate. Participants will be given the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DISC); (Shaffer, Fisher, Lucas, Dulcan, & Shwab-Stone, 2000), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (Groth-Marnat, 1990). Adolescents who show symptoms for either/both post traumatic stress syndrome PTSD and/or depression will be asked to consent to further tests and interviews over the following 10 years. The adolescents, who experienced similar acts of genocide, but who currently show no symptoms of either PTSD or depression will also be asked to consent for further tests and interviews every 2 years, for over the following 10 years. The participants will be retested and re-interviewed every 2 years, checking for changes in structural abnormalities, fundamental behavioral changes, mood disorders, academic achievement fluctuations, which will be measured by the adolescent's school records, and an increase or decrease in symptoms of PTSD and/or depression. It is hypothesized that adolescent victims of genocide will demonstrate a high incidence of PTSD and/or depression, as well as a decrease in academic achievement and educational pursuits for at least up to 10 years later.

Psychological and Scholastic Effects in Adolescent Victims of Ethnic Cleansing
The lives of many adolescent refugees have been seriously disrupted by the trauma of war and cultural uprooting (Watters C, 2001). As a result, refugee children may exhibit signs of major psychological distress (Kinzie, Sack, Angell, Clarke, & Roth, 1989). Studies conducted have demonstrated a high correlation between genocidal trauma (i.e., torture, atrocities, and forced resettlement) and the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other psychological disorders (e.g., depression, dysthemia, anxiety disorders) in adolescent victims (Becker, Weine, Vojvoda, & Mcglashan, 1999). Since research on North American children and adolescents has found a relationship between emotional problems and trouble at school, young refugees, who run a high risk of experiencing mental health problems, might also be expected to have serious academic problems (Weinberg et al. 1989). The long-term effects of severe war trauma suffered during childhood have yet to be completely defined but have important theoretical implications for developmental psychologists, as well as clinical implications for caregivers (Sack, Clark, & Seeley, 1996). Longitudinal studies of war-traumatized children followed through crucial developmental points are in short supply. This study intends to provide information addressing this issue in a group of adolescent victims who have recently experienced a mass genocide to be assessed every 2 years for a 10-year period. The Proposed study will measure if PTSD, depression, and scholastic achievement is significantly higher or lower in increments of every 2 years for 10 years after the initial traumatic event. It is hypothesized that adolescent victims of genocide, which according to Merriam-Webster (1993) is the systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, or ethnic group who do not receive specific treatment (i.e., counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy) will demonstrate a high incidence of PTSD and/or depression, as well as a decrease in academic achievement and educational pursuits for at least up to 10 years later.

Several studies (Sack, Seeley, and Clark 1997: Becker, Weine, Vojvoda, and Mcglashan 1999 : Rousseau, and Drapeau 2000 have explored the effects of genocide on adolescent victims. Sack, Seeley, and clark (1997) examined Khmer adolescent refugees and measured their prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while comparing...
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