Sigmund Freud asserts that the human mind contains three psychic zones. Robert Stevenson’s novella, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, contains both conscious and unconscious minds. Mr. Hyde is a man whose body image represents an animal, he acts as if he were an animal; he trampled a young girl who was running in his path. During this event his mind is totally submerged in the unconscious. Freud referrers to this as the “pleasure principle”. The id is “totally lacking in rational logic since mutually contradictory impulses may exist simultaneously and not cancel out each other”. The id knows no ethics or values, no good or evil; it encompasses no morality. Mr. Hyde has no conscious and acted out of pleasure without knowing it.
Dr. Jekyll is a well-known and respected man who created Hyde through science. He transforms into Hyde by consuming a potion. According to Freud, the ego is thought of as the conscious mind, but also is equally the unconscious mind. Dr. Jekyll is in a conscious state of mind when he is as himself, but as Mr. Hyde his mind in unconscious. Freud refers to this as the “reality principle”. The ego’s function is to determine when and where the id’s (Hyde) demands are to be granted. Dr. Jekyll controls turning into Hyde by consuming a potion when Hyde is allowed to be free. Freud believes when the id and ego are in conflict, repression and neurosis result. Dr. Jekyll commits suicide when he is no longer in control of Hyde. Dr. Jekyll has a conscious, but has no conscious as Mr. Hyde takes over him.
Mr. Utterson is not only Dr. Jekyll’s friend but a well-known lawyer. According to Freud, “if a society regards a particular id impulse toward pleasure as socially unacceptable and the ego cannot divert the impulse to a satisfactory substitute, then the superego blocks its fulfillment by forcing it back into the unconscious, repressing it”. Utterson believes that the id (Hyde) is blackmailing his friend in order to obtain all the doctor’s money after he...
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