California State University, Fresno
Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multi-Systems Approach Social Work 212
Dr. Kris Clarke
October 15, 2012
Psychodynamic Theory: "Fathers Influence on Children’s Development"
Understanding the significance of the father’s role and their influences on children’s development has been at the forefront of empirical research over the last ten years. Numerous studies have enriched empirical literature regarding the father’s influence on children’s development. Theorists have reestablished the conceptual framework in outlining the significance to elicit father’s influence on children’s development (Zacker, 1978). In this paper I will examine the Psychodynamic theory and show the relevance, and applicability to Father’s role in child development. (Kriston, Holzel, & Harter, 2009) indicated that long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) is more effective than shorter forms of psychotherapy. Therefore, conceptualizing the framework of the psychodynamic theory and the impact it has on the father’s role on child development is critical in understanding its relevance. The review of theory is followed by discussion and the direct correlation to father’s role on child development. Historically, there has been limited empirical research on psychodynamic theory. Psychodynamic outcome research is underrepresented in the empirical literature and much of psychodynamic research is process-oriented rather than outcome-oriented (Brandell, 2005). The psychodynamic theory can be challenging to conceptualize, due to its dual implications. (Brandell, 2005) states that psychodynamic models are complex to evaluate, in part because they are concerned with meaning as well as behavior change, and consequently psychodynamic practice has become less well understood and less often practiced. However, understanding psychodynamic theory and how the inner energies are what motivate, dominate, and control people’s behavior, are based in past experience and present reality. According to (Berzoff, Flanagan, & Hertz, 2002) clinical knowledge grounded in psychodynamic theory is one of the most powerful ways we have in looking inside someone’s heart and mind, and without it, we are almost blind, limited to the surface. Understanding the internal psychological factors, and how they are interwoven with external factors such as culture, gender, race, class, and biology help us understand the intricate complexities of an individual. From this perspective, we study how the outside develops a person psychologically, and in turn, how the inner world shapes a person’s outer reality. Internal life is intellectualized within biological and social contexts. What is inside and outside an individual comes to be metabolized as psychological strengths and disturbances (Berzoff et al., 2002). Through the lenses of psychodynamic theory, it accounts for the forces of love or hate, sexuality, and aggression, which express themselves differently in each individual, and ultimately shape how each individual functions and develops. According to (Berzoff et al., 2002) Freud viewed humans as inhuman in their nature, fueled by forces, fantasies, longings, and passions beyond their control. Many psychological issues develop when forces in the mind oppose drives. Mental activity derives from the id, the ego, and superego, each having unique functions. Although despite having these unique functions, they frequently conflict with one another (Berzoff et al., 2002). So, psychodynamic theory involves interactions between different parts of the mind, between childhood, and adult events. Moreover, psychodynamic theory examines deep underlying issues involving the unconscious elements in interactions between individuals, where emotion is a primary focus. According to (Jarvis, 2004) psychodynamic theory...