Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs
In the time span of only one year, roughly seven percent of Americans suffer from some form of a mood disorder (Mood Disorders, n.d.). The typical person is able to experience moods on all levels but those that suffer from mood disorders get “stuck” into a certain mood (Mood Disorders, n.d.). There are different mood disorders and each one can have differing levels of how much one suffers from it. Anxiety disorders are when anxiety is the predominant feature or the avoidance of the anxiety causes abnormal behavior (Morris, 2010). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorder. There are many categories, or subdivisions, of anxiety disorders including specific phobias and panic disorders (Morris, 2010). Schizophrenic disorders are very serious disorders in which the individual experiences a disturbance in thoughts, emotions, communications, and can also experience hallucinations and delusions (Morris, 2010). Bulimia nervosa and tourettes syndrome are also psychological disorders that can be helped through medication.
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which the individual is experiencing bouts of both mania and depression in an alternating cycle (Morris, 2010). There can be bursts of normal feelings interspersed between these bouts of mania and depression. Studies have shown that bipolar disorder affects both men and women equally unlike depression which favors the women. Studies have also shown that bipolar disorder is not as common as depression (Morris, 2010). While depression and mania on their own can be linked to outside factors, bipolar disorder is certain to be a biological disturbance, usually genetic, and therefore medication is most likely needed to treat it (Morris, 2010). To treat this form of depression there are four classes of medication that can help (Pinel, 2009). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as Iproniazid, increase the levels of monoamines in the body, alleviating the mood of the patient (Pinel, 2009). The problem with medications such as these is that there are many side effects and some can be quite serious. The most serious being the deactivation of tyramine in the body which can lead to surges in blood pressure which, in turn, cause a stroke in the patient ("MAOI’s: Side Effects", n.d.). Tricyclic antidepressants are another medication route that those suffering from bipolar disorder can take. These medications are much safer than monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Pinel, 2009). Tricyclic antidepressants may, in the beginning of taking the medication, cause the individual to have problems with sleeping, to feel tired more than usual, and can cause nausea (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). Up until recently, the medication of choice to help those with bipolar disorder was lithium (Pinel, 2009). Lithium is not an antidepressant but rather a mood stabilizer that aids in the transition between mania and depression (Pinel, 2009). Unfortunately there are many side effects that can come from taking lithium which can include loss of appetite, indigestion, swollen lips, hair loss, stomach pain, joint and muscle pain, and many other minor side effects (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). There are also many serious side effects that may occur. Loss of coordination, seizures, slurred speech, blackouts, hallucinations, and crossed eyes are only some of the more serious side effects that may occur when using lithium (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012). Selective monoamine-reuptake inhibitors are a fourth type of medication that those who suffer from bipolar disorder may use. These types of medication aid in raising serotonin levels in the body. Side effects from these types of drugs include nausea, tremors, drowsiness, dizziness, sexual side effects, and, in rare cases, cardiovascular problems may arise (Ferguson, 2001).
Panic disorder is a branch out...