Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs
Conditions that are characterized by the individual presenting with behaviors that are defined as abnormal are termed psychiatric disorders o psychiatric disease. An abnormal behavior is one that has been defined within the field of mental health as being atypical or unusual. Those patients who are diagnosed as suffering psychiatric disorders or diseases may have altered perceptions of reality or have impaired abilities to interpret reality. This alteration or impairment can result in great distress for the individual and may lead to self-defeating and/or dangerous behaviors. The behaviors termed abnormal are often also considered socially unacceptable within the culture that is the person’s own (Nevid & Rathus, 2005).One of the most complicated of all of these psychiatric diseases is schizophrenia. The name of this disease indicates that the mind is experiencing a “splitting of psychic functions” (Pinel, 2007, p.481). Schizophrenics present with symptoms that include hallucinations, incoherent thought patterns, bizarre delusions, inappropriate affect and odd behaviors. The range of severity and occurrence of the symptom patterns may vary from individual to individual (Pinel, 2007). A number of theories have been advanced about schizophrenia. Some theories hold that there is a genetic component to the disease that may be triggered by stress or trauma. This genetic component can be exacerbated if the sufferer is held back during their early neurodevelopment (Pinel, 2007).Other theories hold that individuals who suffer from schizophrenia have increased levels of the brain chemical dopamine. This theory was developed during Parkinson’s disease research when the drug chlorpromazine was shown to be a receptor blocker (Pinel, 2007). The dopamine theory was advanced when the D receptors were found to be reactive to phenothiazines and butyrophenones. Phenothiazines bind to both D1 and D2 receptors. Butyrophenones bind to...
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