Biological Level of Analysis:
-Outlining the principles that define the BLA:
What will be in this essay:
1. State what you will be talking about.
2. Define the BLA.
3. State the principles of BLA:
-Behavior has physiological bases.
-Behavior can be inherited
-Behavior has evolutionary processes.
-Animal studies give an insight into human behavior.
4. Purpose of the BLA
5. Bi-directional relationship in human behavior.
6. Reductionist approach.
The writing part:
Outline all of the principles with given case studies:
-Behavior has physiological bases: Behavior focuses on genes, hormones, neurotransmitters, and localized part of the brain. Case Study: HM and his personality change.
-Behavior can be inherited: It can be passed down genetically, by genetic mutation. Case study: Minnesota Twin Study.
-Behavior has evolutionary processes: Adaptation to the environment gives a better access in passing down genes, which is why animal and human behavior is similar. Darwin's theory: individuals with better characteristics will better adapt to the environment (survival and reproduction). Case study: a study by Chartrand and Bargh where they examined the chameleon effect in humans.
- Animal studies give an insight into human behavior: Animals are tested a lot in human research because animals and humans have lots of similarities in reactions. Experiments on animals have made an advance in medicine and psychology, and have brought major improvements in health. Case study: Martinez and Kesner: the role of acetylcholine on memory.
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis:
-State what would be said in the essay.
- Outline what is a research method? What is the purpose of research methods? To collect and analyze data, and a way to manipulate in order to conduct their case studies.
- State the 6 main research methods: Experimental study, Observations, Surveys, Case studies, Interviews, and Correlational studies.
-Introduce the concept of triangulation; which is when researchers conduct more than one case study in order to make the experiment more suitable and credibility, and effective in findings of research.
- State the biases in finding research, two types:
*Researcher bias: is when the researcher sees the experiment and is aware of what is happening, but sometimes their expectations results to bias consciously and unconsciously.
*Observer bias: is when the participant acts differently due to the conscious of being observed in front of other people, which may affect the findings of the research.
**Need to know: In biological psychology, the biological basis such as genes, hormones, neurotransmitters cannot be directly observed. Researchers mainly use experiments, and case studies.
-Define what is an experiment?
- What is the purpose of an experiment?
- How are experiments conducted in psychology? Researchers manipulate the IV, and measure the DV, they attempt to control many variables, and experiments are considered quantitative research methods, however qualitative data may be collected as well.
One study related to the localization of function in the brain:
- State what you will be saying the essay.
The theory that certain areas in the brain respond to certain functions; as well as those specific areas of the brain control different functions carried out by the brain. Thus this refers that the idea of behavior, emotions..etc, originate in the brain in specific areas of the brain, therefore damage to the brain causes the loss of any of them.
-Functions of parts of the brain:
*Left: logic, problem solving, math, language
*Right: creativity, emotion, beliefs
*Case study: HM (Phineas Gage in 1898)
-Aim; to see the damage of his brain, and how it caused a change in behavior. Investigating the particular damage.
-Method: who is HM, what...
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