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Development

1. What is habituation? How is it used to study infant abilities? 2. At birth, babies have the abilities to 1) recognize patterns, 2) respond to their mother’s voices, 3) learn. We saw three videos illustrating the research behind these claims. What was the evidence that babies can learn events? 3. What is a cross-sectional study? What is a longitudinal study? What is a cohort? 4. What emotions are found in babies at birth? What emotions appear between 2-4 months? 5. What is the effect of deprivation on development? Define teratogen. Identify some common teratogens. Identify the causes and symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). 6. The lecturer provided two examples of how enrichment can enhance development: the visual cliff and the “sticky mitten” intervention. What does each of these suggest about innate abilities and the impact of experience on development? Is enrichment always a good idea? 7. What is the “great debate” in developmental psychology? Who is Jean Piaget? What was his theory of development (stages or continuous?) 8. Describe the cognitive processes of assimilation and accommodation. What is a schema and what is it used for? 9. What are Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development? What are the characteristics of each stage, that is, what are object permanence, representational thought, conservation, egocentrism, mental operations, concrete thinking, abstract thinking? How do researchers define when one has moved from one stage to the next? Describe the changes in cognitive functioning revealed by the classic conservation tests (pouring colored water into different size containers; lining up pennies.) 10. Developmental researchers have been testing Piaget’s theory and improving it. What do researchers mean by object concepts, number concepts and person concepts? Describe Rene Baillargeon’s research on object permanence. What can we conclude about Piaget’s model based on her findings? What are the conclusions of research on person concepts and number concepts. 11. What is the Theory of Mind? What is the False Belief Test (FBT) and how does it test egocentrism? What cognitive changes occur between age 3 & 4? At what age does a child gain the cognitive ability to take another person’s point of view? At what age do children begin to deliberately deceive others? What are some explanations of these findings? What are different explanations for limits in a child’s ability to deliberately deceive? 12. Dr. Koenig observed that the False Belief Test measured transient changes. She sought evidence of more stable and lasting knowledge differences. Her research has found that children could identify and mistrust an unreliable informant at what ages? How do her findings expand the findings from the Theory of Mind research? 13. What changes occur in language development? What are the stages of speech production from birth to adult fluency? (this was also covered on Cognitive.) 14. What is universal adaptability? By what age does it seem to go away? What was Janet Werker’s method? When researchers looked at whether or not the loss of universal adaptability could be reversed, what did they find? What is the role of social interaction in language learning? 15. What drives specialization of language, maturation or experience? What is the evidence? That is, are language capacities innate or are they learned? What is the evidence for resilience? 16. According to Dr Koenig, what cognitive and social capacities are shared with other species? What sets humans apart from other species? What is symbolic representation? When does it emerge? 17. What are Kohlberg’s three levels of moral reasoning and what kind of reasoning is associated with each? 18. What does research say about different parenting styles? Which is most effective for promoting healthy development? What are Baumrind’s three major parenting styles: permissive, authoritarian, authoritative. 19. What is...
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