Psy/405 Matrix

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University of Phoenix Material
Learning Personality Theories Matrix
Theory| Assumptions| Reliability| Validity| Application| Behavioral Analysis Theory| * Originated by E.L. Thorndike and John Watson but typically associated with B.F. Skinner. * General focus was on observable behavior even though internal states such as thinking and feeling can influence behavior as well. * History of an individual provides the most useful data for predicting and controlling behavior. However, behavior is also shaped by natural selection and the evolution of culture. * The Behavioral Analysis Theory has been developed by assistance of observing animals, with priority to rats and pigeons. * Operant Conditioning is a process in which reinforcement (punishment) is given based upon the occurrence of a specific behavior. * There are two types of reinforcers, positive and negative. A positive reinforce is used to increase the likelihood that the given behavior will occur. A negative reinforcer is taking a specific stimulus away activating the possibility that the given behavior will occur. * Reinforcements are applied in two different variants, the first being a continuous process; the other type being intermittent. * There are two types of punishments that have been identified. The first presents a stimulus and the second involves removing a positive stimulus within a situation.Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2009).| * This theory establishes reliability through the ABC’s of behavioral theory which includes; Antecedent, behavior and consequence. * This is deemed as a framework that helps to explain and identify the origin of behavior.| * When it comes to validity, behavioral analysis can be compared to the six criteria of a useful theory. The theory has continually generated research and rates very high on falsifiability. * Because Skinner focused primarily on behavior and not on internal factors, he put a lesser importance on personality, which takes away some from its ability to organize all that is known about human personality. * As a guide to action, behavioral analysis rates very high. It is a theory that is still being used in a wide array of areas such as child rearing, education, business, and many others. * Next is internal consistency, an area in which Feist and Feist (2009) rate Skinner very high. Finally, is it parsimonious? The idea that rewarding or punishing behaviors in order to shape them is simple enough, it is in the minute details that it can become somewhat complicated. | * ABA is about how to set up the environment to enable children to learn. * Behavior analysis is performed in educational settings such as schools, but also in settings with children with autism who have difficulty learning from the environment naturally. * People respond to a wide range of reinforcements and an ABA teacher may use treats at first for desired behavior, and then move on to a much bigger range of reinforcers to get desired behavioral results. * New behaviors that people may try but are never rewarded are likely fade with time.| Social Cognitive Theory| * The theory by Albert Bandura primarily focuses on chance encounters and events as serious meetings and how an individual reacts to these events can be life altering. * Plasticity is a characteristic of Social Cognitive Theory; whereas humans have the flexibility to learn a variety of behaviors in diverse situations. * Learning is derived through direct experience and observation of others. * People are the producers and products of social systems and have the means to exercise control over the nature and quality of their lives * Triadic reciprocal causation is the combination of the human functions (behavior, personal factors) and the interaction with the environment causing a final product. * Social Cognitive theory elicits the idea that people’s behavior are positive and negative, weaker or stronger with...
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